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1.
Manufacturing companies not only strive to deliver flawless products but also monitor product failures in the field to identify potential quality issues. When product failures occur, quality engineers must identify the root cause to improve any affected product and process. This root-cause analysis can be supported by feature selection methods that identify relevant product attributes, such as manufacturing dates with an increased number of product failures. In this paper, we present different methods for feature selection and evaluate their ability to identify relevant product attributes in a root-cause analysis. First, we compile a list of feature selection methods. Then, we summarize the properties of product attributes in warranty case data and discuss these properties regarding the challenges they pose for machine learning algorithms. Next, we simulate datasets of warranty cases, which emulate these product properties. Finally, we compare the feature selection methods based on these simulated datasets. In the end, the univariate filter information gain is determined to be a suitable method for a wide range of applications. The comparison based on simulated data provides a more general result than other publications, which only focus on a single use case. Due to the generic nature of the simulated datasets, the results can be applied to various root-cause analysis processes in different quality management applications and provide a guideline for readers who wish to explore machine learning methods for their analysis of quality data.  相似文献   
2.
A recent development in tactile technology enables an improvement in the appreciation of the visual arts for people with visual impairment (PVI). The tactile sense, in conjunction with, or a possibly as an alternative to, the auditory sense, would allow PVIs to approach artwork in a more self‐driven and engaging way that would be difficult to achieve with just an auditory stimulus. Tactile colour pictograms (TCPs), which are raised geometric patterns, are ideographic characters that are designed to enable PVIs to identify colours and interpret information by touch. In this article, three TCPs are introduced to code colours in the Munsell colour system. Each colour pattern consists of a basic cell size of 10 mm × 10 mm to represent the patterns consistently in terms of regular shape. Each TCP consists of basic geometric patterns that are combined to create primary, secondary, and tertiary colour pictograms of shapes indicating colour hue, intensity and lightness. Each TCP represents 29 colours including six hues; they were then further expanded to represent 53 colours. Two of them did not increase the cell size, the other increased the cell size 1.5 times for some colours, such as yellow‐orange, yellow, blue, and blue‐purple. Our proposed TCPs use a slightly larger cell size compared to most tactile patterns currently used to indicate colour, but code for more colours. With user experience and identification tests, conducted with 23 visually impaired adults, the effectiveness of the TCPs suggests that they were helpful for the participants.  相似文献   
3.
4.
Abnormal activation of Toll-like receptor (TLRs) signaling can result in colon cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of important TLRs in different histological types of colorectal polyps and evaluate their relationship with intestinal microbiota. The expression levels of TLR2, 3, 4, and 5 were analyzed in intestinal biopsy specimens of 21 hyperplastic polyp (HP), 16 sessile serrated adenoma (SSA), 29 tubular adenoma (TA), 21 villous/tubulovillous (VP/TVP) cases, and 31 normal controls. In addition, selected gut bacteria including Streptococcus bovis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas spp., Lactobacillus spp., Roseburia spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. were quantified in fecal samples using absolute qRT PCR, and, finally, the association between TLRs and these gut microbiota- was evaluated by Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Higher expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in VP/TVP and TA, and lower expression levels of TLR3 and TLR5 in all type of polyps were observed. The differences in TLR expression patterns was not only dependent on the histology, location, size, and dysplasia grade of polyps but also related to the intestinal microbiota patterns. TLR2 and TLR4 expression was directly associated with the F. nucleatum, E. faecalis, S. bovis, Porphyromonas, and inversely to Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Roseburia quantity. Furthermore, TLR3 and TLR5 expression was directly associated with Bifidobacterium, Roseburia, and Lactobacillus quantity. Our results suggest a possible critical role of TLRs during colorectal polyp progression. An abnormal regulation of TLRs in relation to gut microbial quantity may contribute to carcinogenesis.  相似文献   
5.
The process of electrodeposition can be described in terms of a reaction-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) system that models the dynamics of the morphology profile and the chemical composition. Here we fit such a model to the different patterns present in a range of electrodeposited and electrochemically modified alloys using PDE constrained optimization. Experiments with simulated data show how the parameter space of the model can be divided into zones corresponding to the different physical patterns by examining the structure of an appropriate cost function. We then use real data to demonstrate how numerical optimization of the cost function can allow the model to fit the rich variety of patterns arising in experiments. The computational technique developed provides a potential tool for tuning experimental parameters to produce desired patterns.  相似文献   
6.
《材料科学技术学报》2019,35(7):1309-1314
Degenerate pattern is a seemingly disordered morphology but it exhibits the inherently ordered crystal connected with tip-splitting and limited stability which makes it difficult to observe in the metallic system. Here we employ (100)[011] orientated planar-front seeds using directional solidification and reveal the fundamental origins of the degenerate pattern growth in an Al-4.5 wt% Cu alloy. We find that the spacing of the tip-splitting (λ) in the degenerate of the alloys followed a power law, λV−0.5, and the frequency (f) of the splitting was related to the growth velocity (V) by ƒ∝V1.5. The dimensionless growth direction (θ/θ0) increased monotonously and approached 0.6 with faster velocity, attributed to its anisotropy in the interface kinetics. Once growth velocity exceeded a threshold, two types of pattern transitions from degenerate to regular dendrites were proposed. One of them exhibited a random and chaotic mode and the other underwent a rotation in growth direction.  相似文献   
7.
Enhanced gravity concentrators such as Knelson concentrator (KC) are extensively used in the mineral processing industry. The complexities of KC bowl geometry and variation of feed characteristics have forced process engineers to design empirically new units using laboratory and pilot-scale Knelson concentrators. However, numerical modelling methods such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) provide a better insight of flow behaviour of fluid and particulate solid phases inside these processing units. This article reports findings of CFD simulations for single-phase water flow inside the laboratory KC. An available standard 7.5-cm laboratory KC bowl was numerically simulated using realisable k-ε turbulence model to resolve the turbulence dispersion of existing transitional flow regime. The effects of relative centrifugal force (RCF) intensity and bed fluidisation water flow rate on the water velocity and pressure distributions were studied. Simulations confirmed the swirling flow pattern governing inside the bowl. The results revealed that the impact of RCF intensity on the water field values is greater than that of bed fluidisation water flow rate. Both velocity and pressure variations inside the bowl rings followed a linear trend.  相似文献   
8.
We study magnetic-field directed self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles onto templates recorded on perpendicular magnetic recording media, and quantify feature width and height as a function of assembly time. Feature widths are determined from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, while heights are obtained with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). For short assembly times, widths were ~150 nm, while heights were ~14 nm, a single nanoparticle on average with a 10:1 aspect ratio. For long assembly times, widths approach 550 nm, while the average height grows to 3 nanoparticles, ~35 nm; a 16:1 aspect ratio. We perform magnetometry on these self-assembled structures and observe the slope of the magnetic moment vs. field curve increases with time. This increase suggests magnetic nanoparticle interactions evolve from nanoparticle–nanoparticle interactions to cluster–cluster interactions as opposed to feature–feature interactions. We suggest the aspect ratio increase occurs because the magnetic field gradients are strongest near the transitions between recorded regions in perpendicular media. If these gradients can be optimized for assembly, strong potential exists for using perpendicular recording templates to assemble complex heterogeneous materials.  相似文献   
9.
The simultaneous flow of gas, oil, and water forms various flow patterns due to the complex interfacial relationships. Three-phase flow patterns are classified as the gas-liquid and liquid-liquid flow patterns. Pressure drop, void fraction, liquid holdup, and phase distribution are important characteristics of the three-phase flow. These characteristics are generally associated with the three-phase flow patterns. Hence, the knowledge about flow patterns can help to predict the overall behavior of the three-phase flow. Studies have been conducted to identify three-phase flow pattern and their characteristics at various superficial velocities of gas, oil, and water. The major purpose of the studies is to gather information about the three-phase co-current flow and use it for improvement of the efficiency of the flow systems. Therefore, the accuracy of the measurement technique is critical. Several types of flow pattern identification and measurement techniques have been developed to improve accuracy and provide high-quality results. In this article, classical and advanced techniques used for the three-phase flow identification and measurement have been reviewed. The survey will help the researchers working in the area of multiphase flow to choose the right technique based on the objectives of the studies.  相似文献   
10.
以高精度三维地震资料为基础,结合构造演化恢复和区域构造背景,系统研究了准噶尔盆地车排子凸起断裂分布和形成机制。结果表明,车排子凸起发育深部和浅部2套断裂体系,深部断裂体系和浅部断裂体系分别发育3种断裂样式。车排子凸起共经历5个构造演化阶段,其中,晚二叠世挤压-逆冲控制了深部断裂体系的初始形成,晚侏罗世逆冲-走滑控制了深部断裂体系的最终定型,新近纪叠加掀斜、局部伸展控制了浅部断裂体系的形成。不同断裂体系在油气成藏过程中均起到了重要作用。其中:深部断裂体系的红车断裂是重要的油源断裂,低序级断层控制形成了石炭系火山岩优质储集体;浅部断裂体系使得油气向浅部层系运移调整,同时形成了断块圈闭、断鼻圈闭和断层-岩性圈闭等丰富的圈闭类型。  相似文献   
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