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1.
《Ceramics International》2021,47(21):29949-29959
High carbon footprint of cement production is the major drawback of plain cement concrete resulting in environmental pollution. Geopolymer composites paste can be effectively used as an alternative to Portland cement in the construction industry for a sustainable environment. The demand for high-performance composites and sustainable construction is increasing day by day. Therefore, the present experimental program has endeavored to investigate the mechanical performance of basalt fiber-reinforced fly ash-based geopolymer pastes with various contents of nano CaCO3. The content of basalt fibers was fixed at 2% by weight for all specimens while the studied contents of nano CaCO3 were 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3%, respectively. The compressive strength, compressive stress-strain response, flexural strength, bending stress-strain response, elastic modulus, toughness modulus, toughness indices, fracture toughness, impact strength, hardness, and microstructural analysis of all four geopolymer composite pastes with varying contents of nano CaCO3 using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were evaluated. The results revealed that the use of 3% nano CaCO3 in basalt fiber-reinforced geopolymer paste presented the highest values of compressive strength and hardness while the use of 2% nano CaCO3 showed the highest values of flexural strength, impact strength, and fracture toughness of composite paste. The SEM results indicated that the addition of nano CaCO3 improved the microstructure and provided a denser geopolymer paste by refining the interfacial zones and accelerating the geopolymerization reaction.  相似文献   
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Equilibrium swelling and rheological tests were adopted to systematically investigate the effects of softener type and dosage on the crosslink densities. The results turned out that the chemical crosslink density could be distinguished from the physical crosslink density by comparing the results of equilibrium swelling and rheological tests. The liquid butadiene (LB) as a softener leads to the greatest reduction in crosslink density, followed by polyethylene wax (PW) and paraffinic oil (PO). The tensile strength decreases with increasing PO content while shows peak values with increase of LB and PW contents. The dependencies of chemical crosslink density on the aging time under 150°C are quite different for the three softeners, which can be expected from the double crosslinking networks consisting of small softener and large main crosslinking networks. Further investigation has been performed to correlate the tensile strength with chemical crosslink density of ethylene propylene diene monomer elastomer vulcanizates. Three different linear relationships can be obtained for the softeners independent of the aging time. It can now be expected from this study that the role of some new softeners in rubber compounds is not only confined to plasticization but also forms crosslinking networks in the peroxide-cured rubbers.  相似文献   
4.
In this study, we report the three-point flexural strength and fracture toughness of monolithic hafnium carbide up to 2000 °C. HfC with different grain sizes was consolidated using the spark plasma sintering method. Coarse-grained monoliths showed a weak dependence on the strain rate during high-temperature tests at 1600 °C–2000 °C. In contrast, results for the ceramics with a grain size below 20 μm indicated a positive dependence of the yield strength vs strain rate. This allowed us to identify the activation energy for high-temperature deformation in flexure as 370 kJ/mol. This level of activation energy is in satisfactory agreement with reports about the diffusion of C in hafnium carbide.  相似文献   
5.
Glass-based materials are usually considered as excellent seals for jointing adjacent components in planar solid oxide fuel cells, but the uncontrollable crystallization in the glass may cause delamination and micro-cracks in such seals. To solve this problem, Al2O3 ceramic particles were added to a BaO–CaO–Al2O3–B2O3–SiO2 glass system to reduce negative effects caused by crystalline phase on the gas tightness and the joint strength in the seals. At an operating temperature of 750 °C, the glass-based seals with 20 wt% Al2O3 addition (GA80) exhibited extremely low leakage rates (~0.002 sccm/cm under an input gas pressure of 13.6 kPa) and higher shear strength (3.31 MPa). The Al2O3 ceramic addition and the crystalline phase BaAl2Si2O8 reinforced the glass matrix. Further thermal cycle analyses indicated that leakage rates for the GA80 seals remained at around 0.0025 sccm/cm after 10 thermal cycles, which was consistent with minor microstructural change and good interface bonding. Single cell testing with of GA80 seals was performed and the results demonstrated stable electrochemical performance through 6 thermal cycles at an open circuit voltage of 1.16–1.18 V, as well as a power density above 546 mW/cm2 at a current density of 925 mA/cm2. These results showed the high thermal cycle stability of the glass/Al2O3 composite seals in intermediate temperature planar solid oxide fuel cells.  相似文献   
6.
The joining of liquid-phase sintered SiC (LPS-SiC) ceramics was conducted using spark plasma sintering (SPS), through solid state diffusion bonding, with Ti-metal foil as a joining interlayer. Samples were joined at 1400 °C, under applied pressures of either 10 or 30 MPa, and with different atmospheres (argon, Ar, vs. vacuum). It was demonstrated that the shear strength of the joints increased with an increase in the applied joining pressure. The joining atmosphere also affected on both the microstructure and shear strength of the SiC joints. The composition and microstructure of the interlayer were examined to understand the mechanism. As a result, a SiC-SiC joining with a good mechanical performance could be achieved under an Ar environment, which in turn could provide a cost-effective approach and greatly widen the applications of SiC ceramic components with complex shape.  相似文献   
7.
In this study the effects of high temperature and moisture on the impact damage resistance and mechanical strength of Nextel 610/alumina silicate ceramic matrix composites were experimentally evaluated. Composite laminates were exposed to either a 1050°C isothermal furnace-based environment for 30 consecutive days at 6 h a day, or 95% relative humidity environment for 13 consecutive days at 67°C. Low velocity impact, tensile and short beam strength tests were performed on both ambient and environmentally conditioned laminates and damage was characterized using a combination of non-destructive and destructive techniques. High temperature and humidity environmental exposure adversely affected the impact resistance of the composite laminates. For all the environments, planar internal damage area was greater than the back side dent area, which in turn was greater than the impactor side dent area. Evidence of environmental embrittlement through a stiffer tensile response was noted for the high temperature exposed laminates while the short beam strength tests showed greater propensity for interlaminar shear failure in the moisture exposed laminates. Destructive evaluations exposed larger, more pronounced delaminations in the environmentally conditioned laminates in comparison to the ambient ones. External damage metrics of the impactor side dent depth and area directly influenced the post-impact tensile strength of the laminates while no such trend between internal damage area and residual strength could be ascertained.  相似文献   
8.
One of the drawbacks of fusible clays is the narrow sintering interval due to a sharp increase in the amount of iron-silicate melt at a temperature of 1000–1100 °C, which hardens in the form of a glass phase upon cooling. This leads to a relatively low mechanical strength of the calcined samples and causes the danger of melting the granular material surface from such clays during the firing process. To increase the strength of samples of fusible clays, the influence of diabase and granitoid rocks was considered. It was found that the strengthening effect of diabase and granitoid rock additives in an amount of 20–50% in a mixture with fusible clay is due to an increase of total content of the crystalline phase (mullite, cristobalite and residual quartz) from 18–20% in clays without additives to 22–28 % - in mixtures with diabase and to 28–34% - with granitoid additives) at a temperature of 1050–1100 °C. This increase is due to the activation of synthesis processes of secondary mullite and crystallization from alkali-rich feldspar melt of amorphous silica, released from the structure of clay minerals. The established influence of the igneous rocks used made it possible to develop compositions and propose process flow sheet for producing aluminosilicate proppants based on fusible clays. The use of granitoid and diabase rocks in an amount of 20–70% with fusible clays produces lightweight aluminosilicate proppants with bulk density of 1.40–1.46 g/cm3 at temperature range of 1050–1100 °C, which can endure destructive pressures up to 34.5–52 MPa.  相似文献   
9.
A Cooper(II) (Cu2+)-nitrogen coordination-crosslinked network is designed in poly(styrene-co-butadiene-co-styrene) (SBS) to change commercial elastomers into advanced soft materials. Herein, ligand groups into SBS molecular chains by the 3,6-di(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DPT) click reaction are first introduced. The results from fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are verified the successful modification of SBS. The DPT-grafted SBS could then coordinate with copper sulfate (CuSO4) to form a Cu2+-nitrogen bond, which is further characterized using FT-IR, XPS, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, and geometric structure calculations. After modifying SBS to form an SBS-DPT/CuSO4 composite (SBS-DPT2-Cu10), the tensile stress is improved from 11.43 to 23.25 MPa, while the elongation at break is remained almost unchanged, and the corresponding toughness is increased from 33.21 to 63.26 MJ m–3. Moreover, the dynamic nature of the Cu2+-nitrogen coordination bonds enables the SBS-DPT/CuSO4 composite to exhibit sustained thermoplastic performance and excellent shape memory behavior under an external thermal stimulus.  相似文献   
10.
This study investigates the effect of intermediate stress ratio (b) on the mechanical behaviour of granular soil in true triaxial tests. A CFD-DEM solver with the ability to model compressible fluid and moving mesh has been developed and calibrated based on existing experimental test results on Nevada sand. The effect of b on the undrained true triaxial test, which has been neglected in the literature, was investigated using a reasonable number of models. The effects of the initial confining stress and initial void ratio also have been studied. The developed model was used to calculate the hydrodynamic forces on the particles and evaluate the ratio of the particle–fluid interaction force to the resultant force on the particles. It has been demonstrated that, in numerical studies, the effect of these forces cannot be neglected.  相似文献   
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