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1.
With the blossom of information industry, electromagnetic wave technology shows increasingly potential in many fields. Nevertheless, the trouble caused by electromagnetic waves has also drawn extensive attention. For instance, electromagnetic pollution can threaten information safety in vital fields and the normal function of delicate electronic devices. Consequently, electromagnetic pollution and interference become an urgent issue that needs to be addressed. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become a potential candidate to deal with these problems due to many advantages, such as high dielectric loss, remarkable thermodynamic stability, and low density. With the appearance of climbing demands, however, the carbon nanotubes combining various composites have shown greater prospects than the single CNTs in microwave absorbing materials. In this short review, recent advances in CNTs-based microwave absorbing materials were comprehensively discussed. Typically, we introduced the electromagnetic wave absorption mechanism of CNTs-based microwave absorbing materials and generalized the development of CNTs-based microwave absorbers, including CNTs-based magnetic metal composites, CNTs-based ferrite composites, and CNTs-based polymer composites. Ultimately, the growing trend and bottleneck of CNTs-based composites for microwave absorption were analyzed to provide some available ideas to more scientific workers.  相似文献   
2.
Increasing the dielectric loss capacity plays an important role in enhancing the electromagnetic absorption performance of materials. It remains a challenge to simultaneously introduce multiple types of dielectric losses in the material. In this work, we show that the atomic and interfacial dipole polarizations can be simultaneously enhanced by substituting N species into both carbon coating layers and bulk TiC lattices of a core-shell TiC@C material. Additionally, substitution of N species results more exposed TiC(111) facets and refines the TiC grain sizes in the bulk material, which is beneficial for enhancing the scattering of the external electromagnetic waves. The maximum reflection loss of the N substituted TiC@C material is measured as ?47.1 dB with an effective absorbing bandwidth of 4.83 GHz at 1.9 mm, which illustrates a valuable way to further tuning the electromagnetic absorption performance of this type of materials.  相似文献   
3.
针对致密砂岩油藏大规模体积压裂开发后能量补充困难的问题,利用自主设计制作的大型人造三维岩心物理模型和物理模拟实验舱,开展致密砂岩油藏能量补充方式优化研究。实验结果表明:致密砂岩油藏压裂开发过程中,地层能量损耗严重,采取注水或注气的方式可有效进行能量补充;地层中裂缝规模越大,越有利于原油渗流,后续补充能量的传播范围越广,有助于进一步提高原油采收率;从提高驱油效率和扩大波及系数方面优选吞吐渗吸介质,CO2均优于活性水,CO2吞吐开发在矿场试验中取得了显著的增油效果,因此,CO2吞吐作为一种有效的能量补充方式在致密油开发中展现了良好的应用前景。该文分析了致密砂岩储层水平井压裂开发的渗流规律,优选出致密砂岩储层大规模压裂开发后最佳渗吸介质,可为致密砂岩油藏开发设计提供重要的理论依据。  相似文献   
4.
This paper proposes a parameter adjustable dynamic mass and energy balance simulation model for an industrial alkaline water electrolyzer plant that enables cost and energy efficiency optimization by means of system dimensioning and control. Thus, the simulation model is based on mathematical models and white box coding, and it uses a practicable number of fixed parameters. Zero-dimensional energy and mass balances of each unit operation of a 3 MW, and 16 bar plant process were solved in MATLAB functions connected via a Simulink environment. Verification of the model was accomplished using an analogous industrial plant of the same power and pressure range having the same operational systems design. The electrochemical, mass flow and thermal behavior of the simulation and the industrial plant were compared to ascertain the accuracy of the model and to enable modification and detailed representation of real case scenarios so that the model is suitable for use in future plant optimization studies. The thermal model dynamically predicted the real case with 98.7 % accuracy. Shunt currents were the main contributor to relative low Faraday efficiency of 86 % at nominal load and steady-state operation and heat loss to ambient from stack was only 2.6 % of the total power loss.  相似文献   
5.
磨矿动力学是描述被磨物料的磨碎速率与磨矿时间之间关系规律的一种数学模型,对分析物料在磨矿过程中的粒级及能量变化具有重要作用。为充分发挥磨矿动力学在磨矿过程中的作用,论文在分析国内外研究现状的基础上,系统介绍了两种典型的磨矿动力学模型:m阶磨矿动力学模型和磨矿总体平衡动力学模型,分析了模型中各参数的含义;以磨矿总体平衡动力学模型为重点,分析了破碎速率函数和破碎分布函数的求解方式,包括零阶产出率法、奥-勒理论简算法、卡普尔G-H算法以及经验公式法等;从物料性质、磨矿介质及配比、磨矿方式及参数、化学添加剂等几个方面分析了影响磨矿动力学模型的因素;指出了磨矿动力学模型在矿物加工工程领域的应用现状并对其未来的研究方向提出展望。研究表明磨矿动力学在矿物加工领域具有广泛而重要的应用,为进一步改善磨矿工艺提供了理论依据。  相似文献   
6.
The performance of Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is affected by several operating conditions. Therefore, in the present study, an optimization study was done to determine the working efficiency of MEC in terms of COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, hydrogen and current generation. Optimization was carried out using a quadratic mathematical model of response surface methodology (RSM). Thirteen sets of experimental runs were performed to optimize the applied voltage and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of single chambered batch fed MEC operated with dairy industry wastewater. The operating conditions (i.e) an applied voltage of 0.8 V and HRT of 2 days that showed a maximum COD removal response was chosen for further studies. The MEC operated at optimized condition (HRT- 2 days and applied voltage- 0.8 V) showed a COD removal efficiency of 95 ± 2%, hydrogen generation of 32 ± 5 mL/L/d, Power density of 152 mW/cm2 and current generation of 19 mA. The results of the study implied that RSM, with its high degree of accuracy can be a reliable tool for optimizing the process of wastewater treatment. Also, dairy industry wastewater can be considered to be a potential source to generate hydrogen and energy through MEC at short HRT.  相似文献   
7.
PEMFC system is a complex new clean power system. Based on MATLAB/Simulink, this paper develops a system-level dynamic model of PEMFC, including the gas supply system, hydrogen supply system, hydrothermal management system, and electric stack. The neural network fits the electric stack model to the simulation data. The effects of different operating conditions on the PEMFC stack power and system efficiency are analyzed. Combining the power of the reactor and the system efficiency to define the integrated performance index, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is introduced to optimize the power density and system efficiency of the PEMFC with multiple objectives. The final optimal operating point increases the power density and system efficiency by 1.33% and 12.8%, respectively, which maximizes the output performance and reduces the parasitic power.  相似文献   
8.
Reformed exhaust gas recirculation technology has attracted great attention in internal combustion engines. A platform of an exhaust gas-fuel reformer connected with the marine LNG engine was set up for generating on-board hydrogen. Based on the platform, effects of the methane to oxygen ratio (M/O) and reformed exhaust gas ratio (REG) from the reformer and excess air ratio (λ) from the engine on the components, hydrogen yield, thermal efficiency and reforming process of the reformer were experimentally investigated. Results shown that hydrogen-rich gases (reformate) can be generated by reforming the mixture of engine exhaust gas (about 400 °C) and methane supplied via the reformer with Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, and the hydrogen concentration of reformate was between 6.2% and 12.6% by volume. The methane supplied rate and λ affected the components and temperature of the reactant in the reformer, while REG changed the gas hour space velocity during the exhaust gas-fuel reforming processes, resulting in the difference in the components of the reformate and thermal efficiency. At the present experimental condition, the highest H2 concentration reformate was generated under the M/O of 2.0, λ of 1.55 and REG of 6%.  相似文献   
9.
The low performance of open-cathode proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (OCPEMFCs) is attributed to the low-humidity ambient air supplied to the cathode using electric fans. To improve the OCPEMFC performance, this paper proposes a novel humidification method by collecting water purged from the anode and supplying it to the open cathode. The OCPEMFC performance is evaluated at various humidifier distances from the cathode inlet, and it is compared with that where no humidifier is used when the OCPEMFC operates under three different current levels of 1, 5, and 8 A. The results show that the novel design improves the stack power, and optimal performance is achieved at a humidifier distance of 2 cm. The energy efficiency achieves an improvement between 1.4% and 1.8% when a humidifier is used.  相似文献   
10.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(10):8130-8142
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measurement of the difference between actual and predicted feed intake when adjusted for energy sinks; more efficient cows eat less than predicted (low RFI) and inefficient cows eat more than predicted (high RFI). Data evaluating the relationship between RFI and feeding behaviors (FB) are limited in dairy cattle; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine daily and temporal FB in mid-lactation Holstein cows across a range of RFI values. Mid-lactation Holstein cows (n = 592 multiparous; 304 primiparous) were enrolled in 17 cohorts at 97 ± 26 d in milk (± standard deviation), and all cows within a cohort were fed a common diet using automated feeding bins. Cow RFI was calculated as the difference between predicted and observed dry matter intake (DMI) after accounting for parity, days in milk, milk energy, metabolic body weight and change, and experiment. The associations between RFI and FB at the level of meals and daily totals were evaluated using mixed models with the fixed effect of RFI and the random effects of cow and cohort. Daily temporal FB analyses were conducted using 2-h blocks and analyzed using mixed models with the fixed effects of RFI, time, RFI × time, and cohort, and the random effect of cow (cohort). There was a positive linear association between RFI and DMI in multiparous cows and a positive quadratic relationship in primiparous cows, where the rate of increase in DMI was less at higher RFI. Eating rate, DMI per meal, and size of the largest daily meal were positively associated with RFI. Daily temporal analysis of FB revealed an interaction between RFI and time for eating rate in multiparous and primiparous cows. The eating rate increased with greater RFI at 11 of 12 time points throughout the day, and eating rate differed across RFI between multiple time points. There tended to be an interaction between RFI and time for eating time and bin visits in multiparous cows but not primiparous cows. Overall, there was a time effect for all FB variables, where DMI, eating time and rate, and bin visits were greatest after the initial daily feeding at 1200 h, increased slightly after each milking, and reached a nadir at 0600 h (6 h before feeding). Considering the relationship between RFI and eating rate, additional efforts to determine cost-effective methods of quantifying eating rate in group-housed dairy cows is warranted. Further investigation is also warranted to determine if management strategies to alter FB, especially eating rate, can be effective in increasing feed efficiency in lactating dairy cattle.  相似文献   
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