首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   27769篇
  免费   3641篇
  国内免费   1869篇
电工技术   4906篇
技术理论   4篇
综合类   3598篇
化学工业   1122篇
金属工艺   863篇
机械仪表   2189篇
建筑科学   3406篇
矿业工程   770篇
能源动力   756篇
轻工业   420篇
水利工程   901篇
石油天然气   783篇
武器工业   414篇
无线电   4595篇
一般工业技术   2343篇
冶金工业   501篇
原子能技术   274篇
自动化技术   5434篇
  2024年   61篇
  2023年   455篇
  2022年   856篇
  2021年   972篇
  2020年   1186篇
  2019年   954篇
  2018年   714篇
  2017年   1011篇
  2016年   1088篇
  2015年   1209篇
  2014年   2147篇
  2013年   1689篇
  2012年   2331篇
  2011年   2480篇
  2010年   1808篇
  2009年   1853篇
  2008年   1729篇
  2007年   2011篇
  2006年   1615篇
  2005年   1424篇
  2004年   1141篇
  2003年   933篇
  2002年   753篇
  2001年   654篇
  2000年   471篇
  1999年   381篇
  1998年   276篇
  1997年   229篇
  1996年   183篇
  1995年   159篇
  1994年   110篇
  1993年   79篇
  1992年   80篇
  1991年   53篇
  1990年   45篇
  1989年   49篇
  1988年   39篇
  1987年   9篇
  1985年   7篇
  1984年   5篇
  1983年   3篇
  1982年   3篇
  1981年   5篇
  1980年   5篇
  1979年   7篇
  1978年   1篇
  1975年   1篇
  1971年   1篇
  1969年   1篇
  1951年   2篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
In the present study, 17 wt % TiN reinforced α-β SiAlON composites were sintered at low temperature by susceptor-assisted microwave heating. The effect of TiN addition on dielectrical properties of starting powders, as well as the influence of sintering temperature on phase evolution, microstructure development and mechanical properties of α/β-SiAlON-TiN composites were investigated. The obtained results showed that TiN addition increased the microwave absorbing properties which is reflected in the peak sintering temperature. Thus, the α:β ratio decreased and mechanical properties were improved, especially the fracture toughness of the composites. Furthermore, an estimate of energy consumption during microwave assisted sintering at the laboratory scale is presented. As a result, the highest values for relative density (97.1%), Vickers hardness (13.35 ± 0.47 GPa), and fracture toughness (7.52 ± 0.54 MPa m1/2) were obtained by microwave sintering for 30 min at 1300 °C.  相似文献   
2.
针对致密砂岩油藏大规模体积压裂开发后能量补充困难的问题,利用自主设计制作的大型人造三维岩心物理模型和物理模拟实验舱,开展致密砂岩油藏能量补充方式优化研究。实验结果表明:致密砂岩油藏压裂开发过程中,地层能量损耗严重,采取注水或注气的方式可有效进行能量补充;地层中裂缝规模越大,越有利于原油渗流,后续补充能量的传播范围越广,有助于进一步提高原油采收率;从提高驱油效率和扩大波及系数方面优选吞吐渗吸介质,CO2均优于活性水,CO2吞吐开发在矿场试验中取得了显著的增油效果,因此,CO2吞吐作为一种有效的能量补充方式在致密油开发中展现了良好的应用前景。该文分析了致密砂岩储层水平井压裂开发的渗流规律,优选出致密砂岩储层大规模压裂开发后最佳渗吸介质,可为致密砂岩油藏开发设计提供重要的理论依据。  相似文献   
3.
The utilization of renewable gaseous fuels in the diesel engine has gained significant interest in recent years due to its clean-burning nature and higher availability. In this study, hydrogen-rich reformed biogas was used as a gaseous fuel in a common rail diesel engine with diesel as pilot fuel. The hydrogen-rich reformed gas was synthesized through dry-oxidative reforming. The experimentations were performed in the load range from 6 to 24 N m with two different flow rates of gaseous fuel (0.5 and 1.5 kg/h) at a constant speed of 1800 RPM. The effects on engine performance parameters (brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, and brake specific diesel consumption), combustion parameters (rate of pressure rise and maximum heat release rate) and emission parameters (Unburnt hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide) were assessed. The induction of gaseous fuel led to an increase in brake thermal efficiency by 10.5%, reduction in brake specific energy consumption by 13.6%, and a reduction of 26.4% in brake specific diesel consumption with a flow rate of 0.5 kg/h when compared to diesel-only mode at 24 N m load. The HC, NOX and CO2 emissions were reduced by 18.2%, 7.4% and 1.4% with a flow rate of 0.5 kg/h when compared to diesel-only mode at 24 N m load due to lower availability of carbon content in the combustible mixture. The utilization of renewable fuel like hydrogen-rich reformed biogas has great potential for overcoming the issue related to both biogas and hydrogen in diesel engines. Moreover, the higher diesel substitution also demonstrates the potential for cost-saving and fossil fuel conservation.  相似文献   
4.
This paper aims to provide a review of the conceptual design and theoretical framework of the main control schemes proposed in the literature for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). Additionally, the objective of the paper is not only to present an overview of the recent control architectures validated on UUVs but also to give detailed experimental-based comparative studies of the proposed control schemes. To this end, the main control schemes, including proportional–integral–derivative (PID) based, sliding mode control (SMC) based, adaptive based, observation-based, model predictive control (MPC) based, combined control techniques, are revisited in order to consolidate the principal efforts made in the last two decades by the automatic control community in the field. Besides implementing some key tracking control schemes from the classification mentioned above on Leonard UUV, several real-time experimental scenarios are tested, under different operating conditions, to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the selected tracking control schemes. Furthermore, we point out potential investigation gaps and future research trends at the end of this survey.  相似文献   
5.
The deterministic and probabilistic prediction of ship motion is important for safe navigation and stable real-time operational control of ships at sea. However, the volatility and randomness of ship motion, the non-adaptive nature of single predictors and the poor coverage of quantile regression pose serious challenges to uncertainty prediction, making research in this field limited. In this paper, a multi-predictor integration model based on hybrid data preprocessing, reinforcement learning and improved quantile regression neural network (QRNN) is proposed to explore the deterministic and probabilistic prediction of ship pitch motion. To validate the performance of the proposed multi-predictor integrated prediction model, an experimental study is conducted with three sets of actual ship longitudinal motions during sea trials in the South China Sea. The experimental results indicate that the root mean square errors (RMSEs) of the proposed model of deterministic prediction are 0.0254°, 0.0359°, and 0.0188°, respectively. Taking series #2 as an example, the prediction interval coverage probabilities (PICPs) of the proposed model of probability predictions at 90%, 95%, and 99% confidence levels (CLs) are 0.9400, 0.9800, and 1.0000, respectively. This study signifies that the proposed model can provide trusted deterministic predictions and can effectively quantify the uncertainty of ship pitch motion, which has the potential to provide practical support for ship early warning systems.  相似文献   
6.
磁声发射(MAE)是铁磁性材料磁化过程中产生的声发射信号,在构件应力检测和微观损伤检测中有着广泛的应用。针对MAE信号非稳态、复杂性、衰减性等特点,提出海鸥算法结合变分模态分解(SOA-VMD)的去噪方法,为克服海鸥算法求解过程中易陷入局部最优解问题,利用柯西变异算子产生随机迭代过程,使改进算法即柯西变异海欧算法(CVSOA)跳出早熟收敛。采用以幅值谱熵为适应度函数,优化VMD算法中分解模态个数K和二次惩戒因子α两个参数,将含噪声的MAE信号进行VMD分解重构。经仿真信号和实际检测信号分析表明,改进后的CVSOA-VMD算法全局寻优能力和去噪性能优于传统的SOA-VMD算法,降噪后的MAE信号特征值对于不同应力下均方根、偏斜度特征值的重复性更好,可靠性更高。  相似文献   
7.
According to the International Energy Agency, only a small part of the full potential of biomass energy is currently used in the world. The annual amount of agricultural waste in the Russian Federation is estimated at about 152 million tons, and the energy potential of animal waste is 201 PJ/year. Anaerobic digestion is an efficient method of converting organic waste into renewable energy sources. Previously, the positive effect of pretreatment of various organic feedstocks in vortex layer apparatus (VLA) on the characteristics of anaerobic digestion and energy efficiency was shown. Currently, there is a significant interest in the world in obtaining biohydrogen from organic waste using the dark fermentation (DF) process. During pretreatment in the VLA, the iron working bodies are abraded and iron particles are introduced into the feedstock of the DF reactor. This may have a positive effect on the production rate and yield of hydrogen, which has not been previously studied. This work is aimed at evaluating the possibility of using the VLA as a method for pretreatment of a dark fermentation feedstock for the intensification of biohydrogen production. To achieve this goal, an experimental setup was constructed. It consisted of a 45 L DF reactor, a VLA and a process control system to collect data on the DF process parameters every 5 min. At a hydraulic retention time in the DF reactor of 24 h and in the VLA of 30 s, the hydrogen content in the biogas increased from 51.1% to 52.2%. At the same time, the pH increased from 3.85 to 4.8–4.9, and the hydrogen production rate increased by 16% to 1.941 L/(L day). The hydrogen yield was 80.9 ml/g VS. Thus, pretreatment of the feedstock in VLA can be an effective way to intensify the DF process; however, further study of the VLA operating modes is required in order to optimize the concentrations of iron particles introduced into the feedstock for the most efficient continuous production of dark fermentative biohydrogen.  相似文献   
8.
边坡位移的时间序列曲线存在复杂的非线性特性,传统的预测模型精度不足以满足预测要求。为此提出了基于变分模态分解的鸟群优化-核极限学习机的预测模型,并用于河北省某水泥厂的边坡位移预测。该方法首先采用VMD把边坡位移序列分解为一系列的有限带宽的子序列,再对各子序列分别采用相空间重构并用核极限学习机预测,采用鸟群算法优化相空间重构的嵌入维度和KELM中惩罚系数和核参数三个数值,以取得最优预测模型。最后将各个子序列预测值叠加,得到边坡位移的最终预测值。结果表明:和KELM、BSA-KELM、EEMD-BSA-KELM模型相比,基于VMD的BSA-KELM预测精度更高,为边坡位移的预测提供一种有效的方法。  相似文献   
9.
The gas purging states affect electricity output and energy storage capacity of unitized regenerative fuel cells. In this study, a model of unitized regenerative fuel cell is established. Cell voltages and operating temperatures influences on the dynamic distribution of thermal fluid during purging process and the discharge of residual liquid water in electrolytic cell mode are investigated. The motivation of the present study is better understanding the gas purging characteristics and its effect on reaction behaviors of unitized regenerative fuel cells. Simulation results reveal a significant influence of purging gas temperature on the water flooding and a great effect of operating voltage on the water diffusion. The operating temperature of electrolytic cell model almost has little effect on purging results at different cell temperature and the same purging gas temperature. When the purging gas temperature is changed, higher temperatures of cell and purging gas facilitate liquid water discharging out from the cell regions. In cell water flooding situation, when having large liquid content, the purging gas has little effects on the water expelling process.  相似文献   
10.
Tracking control of oxygen excess ratio (OER) is crucial for dynamic performance and operating efficiency of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). OER tracking errors and overshoots under dynamic load limit the PEMFC output power performance, and also could lead oxygen starvation which seriously affect the life of PEMFC. To solve this problem, an adaptive sliding mode observer based near-optimal OER tracking control approach is proposed in this paper. According to real time load demand, a dynamic OER optimization strategy is designed to obtain an optimal OER. A nonlinear system model based near-optimal controller is designed to minimize the OER tracking error under variable operation condition of PEMFC. An adaptive sliding mode observer is utilized to estimate the uncertain parameters of the PEMFC air supply system and update parameters in near-optimal controller. The proposed control approach is implemented in OER tracking experiments based on air supply system of a 5 kW PEMFC test platform. The experiment results are analyzed and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control approach under load changes, external disturbances and parameter uncertainties of PEFMC system.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号