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1.
A recent development in tactile technology enables an improvement in the appreciation of the visual arts for people with visual impairment (PVI). The tactile sense, in conjunction with, or a possibly as an alternative to, the auditory sense, would allow PVIs to approach artwork in a more self‐driven and engaging way that would be difficult to achieve with just an auditory stimulus. Tactile colour pictograms (TCPs), which are raised geometric patterns, are ideographic characters that are designed to enable PVIs to identify colours and interpret information by touch. In this article, three TCPs are introduced to code colours in the Munsell colour system. Each colour pattern consists of a basic cell size of 10 mm × 10 mm to represent the patterns consistently in terms of regular shape. Each TCP consists of basic geometric patterns that are combined to create primary, secondary, and tertiary colour pictograms of shapes indicating colour hue, intensity and lightness. Each TCP represents 29 colours including six hues; they were then further expanded to represent 53 colours. Two of them did not increase the cell size, the other increased the cell size 1.5 times for some colours, such as yellow‐orange, yellow, blue, and blue‐purple. Our proposed TCPs use a slightly larger cell size compared to most tactile patterns currently used to indicate colour, but code for more colours. With user experience and identification tests, conducted with 23 visually impaired adults, the effectiveness of the TCPs suggests that they were helpful for the participants.  相似文献   
2.
Smartphones are being used and relied on by people more than ever before. The open connectivity brings with it great convenience and leads to a variety of risks that cannot be overlooked. Smartphone vendors, security policy designers, and security application providers have put a variety of practical efforts to secure smartphones, and researchers have conducted extensive research on threat sources, security techniques, and user security behaviors. Regrettably, smartphone users do not pay enough attention to mobile security, making many efforts futile. This study identifies this gap between technology affordance and user requirements, and attempts to investigate the asymmetric perceptions toward security features between developers and users, between users and users, as well as between different security features. These asymmetric perceptions include perceptions of quality, perceptions of importance, and perceptions of satisfaction. After scoping the range of smartphone security features, this study conducts an improved Kano-based method and exhaustively analyzes the 245 collected samples using correspondence analysis and importance satisfaction analysis. The 14 security features of the smartphone are divided into four Kano quality types and the perceived quality differences between developers and users are compared. Correspondence analysis is utilized to capture the relationship between the perceived importance of security features across different groups of respondents, and results of importance-satisfaction analysis provide the basis for the developmental path and resource reallocation strategy of security features. This article offers new insights for researchers as well as practitioners of smartphone security.  相似文献   
3.
Collaboration with artificial intelligence (AI) is a growing trend even in the field of creativity. This paper examines which quantitative metrics can be used to comparatively analyse human-computer co-creativity with children. To study this question, 24 schoolchildren of age 10–11 wrote a poem with three co-creative poetry writing processes: a human-computer, a human-human, and a human-human-computer process. The computational participant in the processes was an AI-based application called the Poetry Machine. The children were asked to evaluate their user experience with a 5-point Likert-type questionnaire after each writing process and a comparative questionnaire after finishing all processes. The metrics used in the evaluation were immediate fun, long-term enjoyment, creativity, self-expression, outcome satisfaction, ease of starting and finishing writing, quality of ideas and support from others, and ownership.

Significant differences were found in fun, long-term enjoyment, quality of ideas, support, and ownership. The high number of statistically relevant results was enabled by exposing all participants to all writing processes, and the comparative questionnaire. The human-human-computer process was evaluated the best in long-term enjoyment and the human-computer process the weakest in support and idea quality. Creativity and ease of finishing writing turned out to be outlining metrics for the co-creative processes.  相似文献   

4.
Number entry is a ubiquitous activity and is often performed in safety- and mission-critical procedures, such as healthcare, science, finance, aviation and in many other areas. We show that Monte Carlo methods can quickly and easily compare the reliability of different number entry systems. A surprising finding is that many common, widely used systems are defective, and induce unnecessary human error. We show that Monte Carlo methods enable designers to explore the implications of normal and unexpected operator behaviour, and to design systems to be more resilient to use error. We demonstrate novel designs with improved resilience, implying that the common problems identified and the errors they induce are avoidable.  相似文献   
5.
Smartphones are indispensable for many young people, which in turn increases the risk of smartphone addiction. Previous studies have discovered significant and positive influences of boredom proneness, sensation seeking and smartphone addiction. This study further explored these influences, their underlying mechanisms, and the mediating effects of pastime, flow experience and self-regulation on smartphone addiction. A total of 442 Chinese college students completed a survey focusing on boredom proneness, sensation seeking, pastime, flow experience, self-regulation and smartphone addiction. The results indicated that boredom proneness positively affects smartphone addiction. Contrary to expectations, the results showed that there is no significant relationship between sensation seeking and smartphone addiction. Moreover, pastime and self-regulation have partial mediation effects on the relationship between boredom proneness and smartphone addiction, while the effect of sensation seeking on smartphone addiction is completely transmitted with the help of flow experience and self-regulation. The findings and their implications are discussed.  相似文献   
6.
Private information retrieval(PIR) is an important privacy protection issue of secure multi-party computation, but the PIR protocols based on classical cryptography are vulnerable because of new technologies,such as quantum computing and cloud computing. The quantum private queries(QPQ) protocols available, however, has a high complexity and is inefficient in the face of large database. This paper, based on the QKD technology which is mature now, proposes a novel QPQ protocol utilizing the key dilution and auxiliary parameter. Only N quits are required to be sent in the quantum channel to generate the raw key, then the straight k bits in the raw key are added bitwise to dilute the raw key, and a final key is consequently obtained to encrypt the database. By flexible adjusting of auxiliary parameters θ and k, privacy is secured and the query success ratio is improved. Feasibility and performance analyses indicate that the protocol has a high success ratio in first-trial query and is easy to implement, and that the communication complexity of O(N) is achieved.  相似文献   
7.
ABSTRACT

The concept of digital game-based learning (DGBL) evolves rapidly together with technological enhancements of virtual reality (VR) and smart phones. However, the mental workload (MWL) that VR-training applications demand and motivational qualities originating from user experience (UX) should be identified in order to create effective and enjoyable training/learning challenges that fit with individual users’ capabilities. This study examined the effects of reality-based interaction (RBI) and VR on measures of student motivation and MWL, in a mental arithmetic game for secondary school pupils. In a randomised controlled trial with sixty school children, a mental arithmetic game was tested with three different interaction and two different presentation methods – VR RBI, VR head-mounted-display tapping and tablet flick-gesture. Results found a significant effect of RBI on MWL but no differences in enjoyment of training were found between VR-experience and tablet training-experience. In fact, adding the gaming-context to the mental arithmetic task created an enjoyable, motivating experience regardless of presentation or interaction-style.  相似文献   
8.
相似用户挖掘是提高社交网络服务质量的重要途径,在面向大数据的社交网络时代,准确的相似用户挖掘对于用户和互联网企业等都有重要的意义,而根据用户自己的兴趣话题挖掘的相似用户更符合相似用户的要求。提出了一种基于用户兴趣话题进行相似用户挖掘的方法。该方法首先使用TextRank话题提取方法对用户进行兴趣话题提取,再对用户发表内容进行训练,计算出所有词之间的相似度。提出CP(Corresponding Position similarity)、CPW(Corresponding Position Weighted similarity)、AP(All Position similarity)、APW(All Position Weighted similarity)四种用户兴趣话题词相似度计算方法,通过用户和相似用户间关注、粉丝重合率验证相似用户挖掘效果,APW similarity的相似用户的关注/粉丝重合百分比为1.687%,优于提出的其他三种算法,分别提高了26.3%、2.8%、12.4%,并且比传统的文本相似度方法Jaccard相似度、编辑距离算法、余弦相似度分别提高了20.4%、21.2%、45.0%。因此APW方法可以更加有效地挖掘出用户的相似用户。  相似文献   
9.
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is concerned with how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) might facilitate learning in groups which can be co-located or distributed over a network of computers such as Internet. CSCL supports effective learning by means of communication of ideas and information among learners, collaborative access of essential documents, and feedback from instructors and peers on learning activities. As the cloud technologies are increasingly becoming popular and collaborative learning is evolving, new directions for development of collaborative learning tools deployed on cloud are proposed. Development of such learning tools requires access to substantial data stored in the cloud. Ensuring efficient access to such data is hindered by the high latencies of wide-area networks underlying the cloud infrastructures. To improve learners’ experience by accelerating data access, important files can be replicated so a group of learners can access data from nearby locations. Since a cloud environment is highly dynamic, resource availability, network latency, and learner requests may change. In this paper, we present the advantages of collaborative learning and focus on the importance of data replication in the design of such a dynamic cloud-based system that a collaborative learning portal uses. To this end, we introduce a highly distributed replication technique that determines optimal data locations to improve access performance by minimizing replication overhead (access and update). The problem is formulated using dynamic programming. Experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed collaborative learning system used by institutions in geographically distributed locations.  相似文献   
10.
Today’s information technologies involve increasingly intelligent systems, which come at the cost of increasingly complex equipment. Modern monitoring systems collect multi-measuring-point and long-term data which make equipment health prediction a “big data” problem. It is difficult to extract information from such condition monitoring data to accurately estimate or predict health statuses. Deep learning is a powerful tool for big data processing that is widely utilized in image and speech recognition applications, and can also provide effective predictions in industrial processes. This paper proposes the Long Short-term Memory Integrating Principal Component Analysis based on Human Experience (HEPCA-LSTM), which uses operational time-series data for equipment health prognostics. Principal component analysis based on human experience is first conducted to extract condition parameters from the condition monitoring system. The long short-term memory (LSTM) framework is then constructed to predict the target status. Finally, a dynamic update of the prediction model with incoming data is performed at a certain interval to prevent any model misalignment caused by the drifting of relevant variables. The proposed model is validated on a practical case and found to outperform other prediction methods. It utilizes a powerful deep learning analysis method, the LSTM, to fully process big condition monitoring series data; it effectively extracts the features involved with human experience and takes dynamic updates into consideration.  相似文献   
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