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1.
High-purity mullite ceramics, promising engineering ceramics for high-temperature applications, were fabricated using transient liquid phase sintering to improve their high-temperature mechanical properties. Small amounts of ultrafine alumina or silica powders were uniformly mixed with the mullite precursor depending on the silica-alumina ratio of the resulting ceramics to allow for the formation of a transient liquid phase during sintering, thus, enhancing densification at the early stage of sintering and mullite formation by the reaction between additional alumina and the residual glassy phase (mullitization) at the final stage of sintering. The addition of alumina powder to the silica-rich mullite precursor resulted in a reaction between the glassy silica and alumina phases during sintering, thereby forming a mullite phase without inhibiting densification. The addition of fine silica powder to the mullite single-phase precursor led to densification with an abnormal grain growth of mullite, whereas some of the added silica remained as a glassy phase after sintering. The resulting mullite ceramics prepared using different powder compositions showed different sintering behaviors, depending on the amount of alumina added. Upon selecting an optimum process and the amount of alumina to be added, the pure mullite ceramics obtained via transient liquid phase sintering exhibited high density (approximately 99%) and excellent high-temperature flexural strength (approximately 320 MPa) at 1500 °C in air. These results clearly demonstrate that pure mullite ceramics fabricated via transient liquid phase sintering with compositions close to those of stoichiometric mullite could be a promising process for the fabrication of high-temperature structural ceramics used in an ambient atmosphere. The transient liquid phase sintering process proposed in this study could be a powerful processing tool that allows for the preparation of superior high-temperature structural ceramics used in the ambient processing atmosphere.  相似文献   
2.
In this study, the separation of hydrogen from gas mixtures using a palladium membrane coupled with a vacuum environment on the permeate side was studied experimentally. The gas mixtures composed of H2, N2, and CO2 were used as the feed. Hydrogen permeation fluxes were measured with membrane operating temperature in the range of 320–380 °C, pressures on the retentate side in the range of 2–5 atm, and vacuum pressures on the permeate side in the range of 15–51 kPa. The Taguchi method was used to design the operating conditions for the experiments based on an orthogonal array. Using the measured H2 permeation fluxes from the Taguchi approach, the stepwise regression analysis was also employed for establishing the prediction models of H2 permeation flux, followed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the significance and suitability of operating conditions. Based on both the Taguchi approach and ANOVA, the H2 permeation flux was mostly affected by the gas mixture composition, followed by the retentate side pressure, the vacuum degree, and the membrane temperature. The predicted optimal operating conditions were the gas mixture with 75% H2 and 25% N2, the membrane temperature of 320 °C, the retentate side pressure of 5 atm, and the vacuum degree of 51 kPa. Under these conditions, the H2 permeation flux was 0.185 mol s?1 m?2. A second-order normalized regression model with a relative error of less than 7% was obtained based on the measured H2 permeation flux.  相似文献   
3.
Development of efficient, low cost and multifunctional electrocatalysts for water splitting to harvest hydrogen fuels is a challenging task, but the combination of carbon materials with transition metal-based compounds is providing a unique and attractive strategy. Herein, composite systems based on cobalt ferrite oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Co2FeO4) @(rGO) using simultaneous hydrothermal and chemical reduction methods have been prepared. The proposed study eliminates one step associated with the conversion of GO into rGO as it uses direct GO during the synthesis of cobalt ferrite oxide, consequently rGO based hybrid system is achieved in-situ significantly, the optimized Co2FeO4@rGO composite has revealed an outstanding multifunctional applications related to both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen counterpart (HER). Various metal oxidation states and oxygen vacancies at the surface of Co2FeO4@rGO composites guided the multifunctional surface properties. The optimized Co2FeO4@rGO composite presents excellent multifunctional properties with onset potential of 0.60 V for ORR, an overpotential of 240 mV at a 20 mAcm?2 for OER and 320 mV at a 10 mAcm?2 for HER respectively. Results revealed that these multifunctional properties of the optimized Co2FeO4@ rGO composite are associated with high electrical conductivity, high density of active sites, crystal defects, oxygen vacancies, and favorable electronic structure arisinng from the substitution of Fe for Co atoms in binary spinel oxide phase. These surface features synergistically uplifted the electrocatalytic properties of Co2FeO4@rGO composites. The multifunctional properties of the Co2FeO4@ rGO composite could be of high interest for its use in a wide range of applications in sustainable and renewable energy fields.  相似文献   
4.
Micro-cracks commonly occur on the catalyst layers (CLs) during the manufacturing of catalyst coated membranes (CCMs). However, the crack shape parameters effect on CLs in-plane (IP) electronic conductivity λs is not clear. In this work, the relationship between crack parameters and the λs is obtained based on the two-dimensional (2D) multiple-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The LBM numerical model is validated by the normalized λs experiment applied on three different home-made cracked CLs, and the parameter study focus on crack width, length, quantity and phase angle are carried out. The results show that the decrease of λs has different sensitivity |k| to the parameters above. The crack width has little effect on λs decrease, and the |kw| is 0.038. However, crack arm length and quantity show more significant impact, which |kl| and |kN| are 0.753 and 0.725, respectively. The CLs with different crack propagation directions show significant anisotropy on λs, and a 53.53% decrease in λs is observed between 0° and 90° crack phase angle change. To manufacture a high electronic conductivity CL, crack initiation and migration mitigation are highly encouraged.  相似文献   
5.
We investigate synthesis, phase evolution, hollow and porous structure and magnetic properties of quasi-amorphous intermediate phase (QUAIPH) and hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructure synthesized by annealing of akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. It is found that the annealing temperature determines the phase composition of the products, the crystal structure/size dictates the magnetic properties whereas the final nanorod morphology is determined by the starting material. Annealing of β-FeOOH at ~300 °C resulted in the formation of hollow QUAIPH nanorods. The synthesized material shows low-cytotoxicity, superparamagnetism and good transverse relaxivity, which is rarely reported for QUAIPH. The QUAIPH nanorods started to transform to porous hematite nanostructures at ~350 °C and phase transformation was completed at 600 °C. During the annealing, the crystal structure changed from monoclinic (akaganeite) to quasi-amorphous and rhombohedral (hematite). Unusually, the crystallite size first decreased (akaganeite → QUAIPH) and then increased (QUAIPH → hematite) during annealing whereas the nanorods retained particle shape. The magnetic properties of the samples changed from antiferromagnetic (akaganeite) to superparamagnetic with blocking temperature TB = 84 K (QUAIPH) and finally to weak-ferromagnetic with the Morin transition at TM = 244 K and high coercivity HC = 1652 Oe (hematite). The low-cytotoxicity and MRI relaxivity (r2 = 5.80 mM?1 s?1 (akaganeite), r2 = 4.31 mM?1 s?1 (QUAIPH) and r2 = 5.17 mM?1 s?1 (hematite)) reveal potential for biomedical applications.  相似文献   
6.
以智能反射面(intelligent reflecting surface,IRS)辅助的无线携能通信(simultaneous wireless information and power transfer,SWIPT)系统为背景,研究了该系统中基于能效优先的多天线发送端有源波束成形与IRS无源波束成形联合设计与优化方法。以最大化接收端的最小能效为优化目标,构造在发送端功率、接收端能量阈值、IRS相移等多约束下的非线性优化问题,用交替方向乘子法(alternating direction method of multipliers,ADMM)求解。采用Dinkelbach算法转化目标函数,通过奇异值分解(singular value decomposition,SVD)和半定松弛(semi-definite relaxation,SDR)得到发送端有源波束成形向量。采用SDR得到IRS相移矩阵与反射波束成形向量。结果表明,该系统显著降低了系统能量收集(energy harvesting,EH)接收端的能量阈值。当系统总电路功耗为?15 dBm时,所提方案的用户能效为300 KB/J。当IRS反射阵源数与发送天线数均为最大值时,系统可达最大能效。  相似文献   
7.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the preparation of a dotted nanowire arrayed by 5 nm sized palladium and nickel composite nanoparticles (denoted as PdxNiy NPs) via a hydrothermal method using NU and PdO·H2O as the starting materials. The samples prepared at the mass ratio of NU to PdO·H2O 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 were, respectively, nominated as catalyst c1, c2 and c3. The chemical compositions of all synthesized catalysts were mainly studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), revealing that metallic Ni was one main component of all prepared catalysts. Surprisingly, the main diffraction peaks appearing in the XRD patterns of all prepared catalysts were assigned to the metallic Ni rather than the metallic Pd. Very interestingly, as indicated by the TEM images, a large number of dotted nanowires arrayed by numerous equidistant 5 nm sized nanoparticles were distinctly exhibited in catalyst c1. More importantly, when being used as electrocatalysts for EOR, all prepared catalysts exhibited an evident electrocatalytic activity towards EOR. In the cyclic voltammetry (CV) test, the peak current density of the forward peak of EOR on catalyst c1 measured at 50 mV s?1 was as high as 56.1 mA cm?2, being almost 9 times higher than that of EOR on catalyst c3 (6.3 mA cm?2). Particularly, the polarized current density of EOR on catalyst c1 at 3600 s, as indicated by the chronoamperometry (CA) experiment, was still maintained to be around 1.47 mA cm?2, a value higher than the latest reported data of 1.3 mA cm?2 (measured on the pure Pd/C electrode). Presenting a novel method to prepare dotted nanowires arranged by 5 nm sized nanoparticles and showing the significant eletrocatalytic activities of the newly prepared dotted nanowires towards EOR were the major contributions of this preliminary work.  相似文献   
8.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(8):10613-10619
Alumina ceramics with different unit numbers and gradient modes were prepared by digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing technology. The side length of each functional gradient structure was 10 mm, the porosity ratio was controlled to 70%, and the number of units were (1 × 1 × 1 unit) and (2 × 2 × 2 unit) respectively. The different gradient modes were named FCC, GFCC-1, GFCC-2 and GFCC-3. SEM, XRD, and other characterization methods proved that these gradient structures of alumina ceramics had only α-Al2O3 phase and good surface morphology. The mechanical properties and energy absorption properties of alumina ceramics with different functional gradient structures were studied by compression test. The results show that the gradient structure with 1 × 1 × 1 unit has better mechanical properties and energy absorption properties when the number of units is different. When the number of units is the same, GFCC-2 and GFCC-3 gradient structures have better compressive performance and energy absorption potential than FCC structures. The GFCC-2 gradient structure with 1 × 1 × 1 unit has a maximum compressive strength of 19.62 MPa and a maximum energy absorption value of 2.72 × 105 J/m3. The good performance of such functional gradient structures can provide new ideas for the design of lightweight and compressive energy absorption structures in the future.  相似文献   
9.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(15):21317-21326
1T phase molybdenum disulfide (1T-MoS2) has aroused extensive concern in energy storage devices such as supercapacitors due to its large interlayer spacing, high conductivity and good hydrophilicity. However, it is struggle to synthesize 1T-MoS2 with stable 1T phase with high content. Herein, Ammonium ion intercalation molybdenum disulfide (A-MoS2) with high 1T content and stable 3D microsphere structure was successfully synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. We explained the feasibility of ammonium ion (NH4+) intercalation through density functional theory (DFT) calculations and proved the successful intercalation of NH4+ by XRD and XPS. Through XPS fitting, the 1T phase content is calculated as high as 83.1%. The as-prepared A-MoS2 presents a stable 3D microsphere structure with the interlayer spacing expanded to 0.93 nm, which provides a wide ion diffusion channel that allows ions to pass through quickly. Moreover, the high 1T content increases the hydrophilicity of MoS2, thereby improving the wettability of the electrode, which contributes to the interaction between the electrolyte and electrode. In 1 M Na2SO4, A-MoS2 electrode material displays high specific capacitance of 228 F g?1 at 5 mV s?1 and retains 127 F g?1 at 80 mV s?1, which proves the good rate capability. Furthermore, the assembled α-MnO2//A-MoS2 asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) displayed a wide operating voltage of 2.1 V. The assembled ASC displays a high energy density of 35.8 Wh?kg?1 at a power density of 525.0 W kg?1, which indicates excellent energy storage performance.  相似文献   
10.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(15):21483-21491
To battle the high open-circuit voltage deficit (VOC,def) in kesterite (Cu2ZnSnS4 or CZTS) solar cells, a current field of research relates to point defect engineering by cation substitution. For example, by partly replacing Cu with an element of a larger ionic radius, such as Ag, the degree of Cu/Zn disorder decreases, and likewise does the associated band tailing. In this paper, solution-processed (Ag1-xCux)2ZnSnS4 (ACZTS) samples are prepared through the aprotic molecular ink approach using DMSO as the solvent. The successful incorporation of silver into the CZTS lattice is demonstrated with relatively high silver concentrations, namely Ag/(Ag+Cu) ratios of 13% and 26%. The best device was made with 13% Ag/(Ag+Cu) and had an efficiency of 4.9%. The samples are compared to the pure CZTS sample in terms of microstructure, phase distribution, photoluminescence, and device performance. In the XRD patterns, a decrease in the lattice parameter c/a ratio is observed for ACZTS, as well as significant peak splitting with Ag addition for several of the characteristic kesterite XRD reflections. In addition to the improvement in efficiency, other advantageous effects of Ag-incorporation include enhanced grain growth and an increased band gap. A too high concentration of Ag leads to the formation of secondary phases such as SnS and Ag2S as detected by XRD.  相似文献   
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