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1.
In this work, assembly pressure and flow channel size on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance are optimized by means of a multi-model. Based on stress-strain data of the SGL-22BB GDL obtained from its initial compression experiments, Young's modulus with different ranges of assembly pressure fits well through modeling. A mechanical model is established to analyze influences of assembly pressure on various gas diffusion layer parameters. Moreover, a CFD calculation model with different assembly pressures, channel width, and channel depth are established to calculate PEMFC performances. Furthermore, a BP neural network model is utilized to explore optimal combination of assembly pressure, channel width and channel depth. Finally, the CFD model is used to validate effect of size optimization on PEMFC performance. Results indicate that gap change of GDL below bipolar ribs is more remarkable than that below channels under action of the assembly pressure, making liquid water easily transported under high porosity, which is conducive to liquid water to the channels, reduces the accumulation of liquid water under the ribs, and enhances water removal in the PEMFC. Affected by the assembly force, change of GDL porosity affects its diffusion rate, permeability and other parameters, which is not conducive to mass transfer in GDL. Optimizing the depth and different dimensions through width of the flow field can effectively compensate for this effect. Therefore, the PEMFC performance can be enhanced through the comprehensive optimization of the assembly force, flow channel width and flow channel depth. The optimal parameter is obtained when assembly pressure, channel width and channel depth are set as 0.6 MPa, 0.8 mm, and 0.8 mm, respectively. The parameter optimization enhances the mass transfer, impedance, and electrochemical characteristics of PEMFC. Besides, it effectively enhances the quality transfer efficiency inside GDL, prevents flooding, and reduces concentration loss and ohmic loss.  相似文献   
2.
In this study, the separation of hydrogen from gas mixtures using a palladium membrane coupled with a vacuum environment on the permeate side was studied experimentally. The gas mixtures composed of H2, N2, and CO2 were used as the feed. Hydrogen permeation fluxes were measured with membrane operating temperature in the range of 320–380 °C, pressures on the retentate side in the range of 2–5 atm, and vacuum pressures on the permeate side in the range of 15–51 kPa. The Taguchi method was used to design the operating conditions for the experiments based on an orthogonal array. Using the measured H2 permeation fluxes from the Taguchi approach, the stepwise regression analysis was also employed for establishing the prediction models of H2 permeation flux, followed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the significance and suitability of operating conditions. Based on both the Taguchi approach and ANOVA, the H2 permeation flux was mostly affected by the gas mixture composition, followed by the retentate side pressure, the vacuum degree, and the membrane temperature. The predicted optimal operating conditions were the gas mixture with 75% H2 and 25% N2, the membrane temperature of 320 °C, the retentate side pressure of 5 atm, and the vacuum degree of 51 kPa. Under these conditions, the H2 permeation flux was 0.185 mol s?1 m?2. A second-order normalized regression model with a relative error of less than 7% was obtained based on the measured H2 permeation flux.  相似文献   
3.
The current trends in energy were described, the main of which is the use of alternative energy sources, especially hydrogen. The most common methods of hydrogen accumulation were proposed: accumulation of compressed gaseous hydrogen in high-pressure tanks; accumulation of liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks; storing hydrogen in a chemically bound state; accumulation of gaseous hydrogen in carriers with a high specific surface area. Based on the combination of advantages and disadvantages, the most promising methods of accumulation were selected: storage of liquid hydrogen and storage of hydrogen in carriers with a high specific surface area. The main requirement for materials for hydrogen storage by these methods was revealed – a high specific surface area. Prospects for the development of waste-free low-emission technologies due to the recycling of secondary raw materials and the development of low-temperature technologies for the synthesis of functional and structural materials were substantiated. The applicability of large-scale ash and slag waste from coal-fired thermal power plants as a raw material for obtaining materials by low-temperature technologies was shown. The traditional ways of using ash and slag waste as a raw material, active additive and filler in the production of cements were described. Modern technologies for the production of innovative materials with a unique set of properties were presented, namely carbon nanotubes, silica aerogel and geopolymer materials. The prospect of using geopolymer matrices as a precursor for the synthesis of a number of materials was described; the most promising type of materials was selected – geopolymer foams, which are mainly used as sorbents for purifying liquids and gases or accumulating target products, as well as heat-insulating materials. The possibility of obtaining products of any shape and size on the basis of geopolymer matrices without high-temperature processing was shown. The special efficiency of the development of the technology of porous granules and powders obtained from a geopolymer precursor using various methods was substantiated. The obtained granules can be used in the following hydrogen storage technologies: direct accumulation of hydrogen in porous granules; creation of insulating layers for liquid hydrogen storage units.  相似文献   
4.
学习不仅仅是自然科学知识的学习,更是社会科学、民族文化、正确人生观和价值观的形成过程,“课程思政”无疑正是实现该目标的捷径,它是当前高等院校思想政治教育的新模式。如何提升学生解决“复杂工程问题”的能力成为高校开展工程教育和“新工科”的难点和重点,而课程思政正是培养学生解决“复杂工程问题”中所需要的非技术因素的重要途径。“自动控制系统工程设计”是自动化专业高年级学生的一门专业课,当前关于“课程思政”的论述是指导思想居多、实施经验以及案例设计较少,针对该问题以“自动控制系统工程设计”为例,详细给出了“课程思政”教学案例的具体实施过程,对同类课程提供参考。  相似文献   
5.
寒区河道凌汛灾害河势“弯道效应”的量化评估十分重要。基于分形理论提出河道横断面-纵剖面-平面多维度河势分形维数计算方法及其物理机制,并探讨黄河内蒙古段不同维度河势演变分形特征及其与凌汛灾害的关联关系。结果表明,黄河内蒙古段不同维度河势均具有多尺度自相似分形特征,且具有多年记忆周期的长程相关性;冰坝(严重性冰塞)发生频次与河道主槽弯曲分形维数呈正相关指数型函数关系,与河相系数、深泓点高程和河段平均底坡分形维数负相关,与水深-面积分形维数正相关,总体表明冰坝灾害更易发生于主槽偏移摆动大、蜿蜒曲折、河湾发育程度高的宽浅型弯曲河道,研究成果可为凌汛期冰塞冰坝灾害易发河段诊断及预测提供重要理论依据。  相似文献   
6.
随着食品和膳食补充剂的市场变得越来越全球化,食品和膳食补充剂的安全性、质量和功效引起人们的高度关注。近年来,食品和膳食补充剂中被检测出兴奋剂阳性的事件屡见不鲜。运动员在误服误用被兴奋剂污染的食品和膳食补充剂后,会导致兴奋剂检测呈阳性,这对运动员和国家都造成了重大损失。由于摄入受污染的食品或膳食补充剂会导致严重的健康损害或意外违反反兴奋剂规定,因此准确了解食品和膳食补充剂中兴奋剂污染种类是十分有必要的。本文主要从食品和膳食补充剂中兴奋剂污染的来源和种类以及常用的检测方法等方面进行简要概述,以提高运动员对高风险食品的警惕和防范,避免因误服被兴奋剂污染的食品、膳食补充剂而导致的不良分析结果。  相似文献   
7.
Garzan oil field is located at the south east of Turkey. It is a mature oil field and the reservoir is fractured carbonate reservoir. After producing about 1% original oil in place (OOIP) reservoir pressure started to decline. Waterflooding was started in order to support reservoir pressure and also to enhance oil production in 1960. Waterflooding improved the oil recovery but after years of flooding water breakthrough at the production wells was observed. This increased the water/oil ratio at the production wells. In order to enhance oil recovery again different techniques were investigated. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are gaining attention all over the world for oil recovery. Surfactant injection is an effective way for interfacial tension (IFT) reduction and wettability reversal. In this study, 31 different types of chemicals were studied to specify the effects on oil production. This paper presents solubility of surfactants in brine, IFT and contact angle measurements, imbibition tests, and lastly core flooding experiments. Most of the chemicals were incompatible with Garzan formation water, which has high divalent ion concentration. In this case, the usage of 2-propanol as co-surfactant yielded successful results for stability of the selected chemical solutions. The results of the wettability test indicated that both tested cationic and anionic surfactants altered the wettability of the carbonate rock from oil-wet to intermediate-wet. The maximum oil recovery by imbibition test was reached when core was exposed 1-ethly ionic liquid after imbibition in formation water. Also, after core flooding test, it is concluded that considerable amount of oil can be recovered from Garzan reservoir by waterflooding alone if adverse effects of natural fractures could be eliminated.  相似文献   
8.
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as a layered inorganic nonmetallic material has been widely used. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) modification can trigger exfoliation and afford abundant B–OH active sites at edge of h-BN, which can enhance methane activation ability. Introducing tungsten oxide (WO3) to h-BN produces a similar effect, because doping WO3 into h-BN resulted in electron transfer to N, inducing fracture of B–N bond, resulting in N vacancy (triboron center), exposing more B sites and promoting the generation of B–OH. Significantly, the introduction of WO3 on the modified h-BN dramatically increased the concentration of B–OH compared with the unmodified h-BN, because H2O2 modification weakened B–N bond. By means of XRD, TEM, XPS,EPR, FT-IR, it is proved that the high concentration of B–OH active sites contributed to activating C–H bond, thus methane conversion and CO and H2 selectivity were significantly improved.  相似文献   
9.
In the last few decades, global warming, environmental pollution, and an energy shortage of fossil fuel may cause a severe economic crisis and health threats. Storage, conversion, and application of regenerable and dispersive energy would be a promising solution to release this crisis. The development of porous carbon materials from regenerated biomass are competent methods to store energy with high performance and limited environmental damages. In this regard, bio-carbon with abundant surface functional groups and an easily tunable three-dimensional porous structure may be a potential candidate as a sustainable and green carbon material. Up to now, although some literature has screened the biomass source, reaction temperature, and activator dosage during thermochemical synthesis, a comprehensive evaluation and a detailed discussion of the relationship between raw materials, preparation methods, and the structural and chemical properties of carbon materials are still lacking. Hence, in this review, we first assess the recent advancements in carbonization and activation process of biomass with different compositions and the activity performance in various energy storage applications including supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and hydrogen storage, highlighting the mechanisms and open questions in current energy society. After that, the connections between preparation methods and porous carbon properties including specific surface area, pore volume, and surface chemistry are reviewed in detail. Importantly, we discuss the relationship between the pore structure of prepared porous carbon with surface functional groups, and the energy storage performance in various energy storage fields for different biomass sources and thermal conversion methods. Finally, the conclusion and prospective are concluded to give an outlook for the development of biomass carbon materials, and energy storage applications technologies. This review demonstrates significant potentials for energy applications of biomass materials, and it is expected to inspire new discoveries to promote practical applications of biomass materials in more energy storage and conversion fields.  相似文献   
10.
Sweet pickled mango named Ma-Muang Bao Chae-Im is a traditional preserved mango from Hat Yai, Thailand. This study investigated (I) volatile and non-volatile compound profiles of commercial Ma-Muang Bao Chae-Im and (II) their relationship to consumer preference. Untargeted metabolomics profiling was performed by gas chromatography-mass quadrupole-time of flight analysis. There were 117 volatile and 44 non-volatile compounds annotated in six commercial brands of Ma-Muang Bao Chae-Im. Furthermore, 46 volatile and 19 non-volatile compounds’ discriminant markers were found by Partial least square discriminant analysis. Among those markers, sorbic and benzoic acid were observed in several brands; moreover, the combination of both compounds altered the volatile profile, especially the ester group. Partial least square regression revealed that overall consumer liking is correlated to 1-heptanol; 1-octanol; acetoin; acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester; D-manitol; terpenes and terpenoids, while firmness to sucrose and L-(-)-sorbofuranose. On the other hand, most ester compounds were not related to consumer preference.  相似文献   
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