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1.
以智能反射面(intelligent reflecting surface,IRS)辅助的无线携能通信(simultaneous wireless information and power transfer,SWIPT)系统为背景,研究了该系统中基于能效优先的多天线发送端有源波束成形与IRS无源波束成形联合设计与优化方法。以最大化接收端的最小能效为优化目标,构造在发送端功率、接收端能量阈值、IRS相移等多约束下的非线性优化问题,用交替方向乘子法(alternating direction method of multipliers,ADMM)求解。采用Dinkelbach算法转化目标函数,通过奇异值分解(singular value decomposition,SVD)和半定松弛(semi-definite relaxation,SDR)得到发送端有源波束成形向量。采用SDR得到IRS相移矩阵与反射波束成形向量。结果表明,该系统显著降低了系统能量收集(energy harvesting,EH)接收端的能量阈值。当系统总电路功耗为?15 dBm时,所提方案的用户能效为300 KB/J。当IRS反射阵源数与发送天线数均为最大值时,系统可达最大能效。  相似文献   
2.
Accurate and timely network traffic measurement is essential for network status monitoring, network fault analysis, network intrusion detection, and network security management. With the rapid development of the network, massive network traffic brings severe challenges to network traffic measurement. However, existing measurement methods suffer from many limitations for effectively recording and accurately analyzing big-volume traffic. Recently, sketches, a family of probabilistic data structures that employ hashing technology for summarizing traffic data, have been widely used to solve these problems. However, current literature still lacks a thorough review on sketch-based traffic measurement methods to offer a comprehensive insight on how to apply sketches for fulfilling various traffic measurement tasks. In this paper, we provide a detailed and comprehensive review on the applications of sketches in network traffic measurement. To this end, we classify the network traffic measurement tasks into four categories based on the target of traffic measurement, namely cardinality estimation, flow size estimation, change anomaly detection, and persistent spreader identification. First, we briefly introduce these four types of traffic measurement tasks and discuss the advantages of applying sketches. Then, we propose a series of requirements with regard to the applications of sketches in network traffic measurement. After that, we perform a fine-grained classification for each sketch-based measurement category according to the technologies applied on sketches. During the review, we evaluate the performance, advantages and disadvantages of current sketch-based traffic measurement methods based on the proposed requirements. Through the thorough review, we gain a number of valuable implications that can guide us to choose and design proper traffic measurement methods based on sketches. We also review a number of general sketches that are highly expected in modern network systems to simultaneously perform multiple traffic measurement tasks and discuss their performance based on the proposed requirements. Finally, through our serious review, we summarize a number of open issues and identify several promising research directions.  相似文献   
3.
Today, utility meters for water are tested for measurement behavior at stable operating conditions at specified flow rates as part of the approval process. The measurement error that occurs during start and stop or when changing between flow rates may not be taken into account. In addition, there are new technologies whose measuring behavior under real-world conditions is only known to a limited extend. To take these facts into account, a new method has been developed and tested to determine the measurement behavior of water meters under dynamic load profiles as they occur in the real application. For this purpose, a test rig for flow rate measurement was extended by a cavitation nozzle apparatus and the generation of dynamic load profiles was validated. For the cavitation nozzles used, possible factors influencing the flow rate, such as temperature and purity of the water as well as the upstream pressure were investigated. Using different types of domestic water meters, the applicability of the dynamic test procedure was demonstrated and the measurement behavior of the meters was characterised.  相似文献   
4.
Limiting current density at different temperatures, backpressures, and balance gases can be used to separate molecular diffusion resistance, Knudsen diffusion resistance and local transport resistance of membrane electrode assembly (MEA). However, the measurement of limiting current density has no unified protocol. The diverse choices in the literature, either in the control of current or voltage or in the atmosphere like relative humidity and O2 concentrations, make it difficult to compare the results and identify the true bottleneck hindering the mass transport. In this work, the current-voltage curves obtained by current scanning/stepping and voltage scanning/stepping methods under dilute O2 of different concentrations and a wide range of relative humidity were measured and analyzed systematically. It is found that the voltage stepping method is superior to the other three ways of control for the reliable determination of the limiting current density. Aided with simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, the limiting current density can be determined with pinpoint accuracy. When the limiting current density is just used to qualitatively evaluate different MEA, the voltage scanning method can be used instead for its high time efficiency. The selection of the atmosphere also plays an important role in suppressing the distortion from excessive water and reducing the spurious contribution from proton conduction resistance. It is found that O2 concentrations at 0.5 vol% and relative humidity at 90% can give the best estimation of O2 transport resistance in membrane electrode assembly.  相似文献   
5.
乡村产业中的化石能源设备逐渐被电能技术替代,引起了乡村负荷波动增大、部分时段产生集中高负荷的问题。为了解决以上问题,将低品位清洁能源应用至乡村的茶叶生产中,针对烘茶全过程的工艺要求提出了跨临界CO2热泵烘茶技术;并以某茶叶生产乡村为对象,对其代表台区的全年日用电量及产茶日负荷进行了分析,得出采用CO2热泵烘茶后其负荷得到大幅度削减,整体可降低至原负荷的39.6%~46.8%,峰值负荷与平时负荷的比值由原本的13.6降至5.4~6.2。跨临界CO2热泵应用至农产品生产中可有效缓解乡村供电压力。  相似文献   
6.
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created a great demand for a better understanding of the spread of viruses in indoor environments. A novel measurement system consisting of one portable aerosol-emitting mannequin (emitter) and a number of portable aerosol-absorbing mannequins (recipients) was developed that can measure the spread of aerosols and droplets that potentially contain infectious viruses. The emission of the virus from a human is simulated by using tracer particles solved in water. The recipients inhale the aerosols and droplets and quantify the level of solved tracer particles in their artificial lungs simultaneously over time. The mobile system can be arranged in a large variety of spreading scenarios in indoor environments and allows for quantification of the infection probability due to airborne virus spreading. This study shows the accuracy of the new measurement system and its ability to compare aerosol reduction measures such as regular ventilation or the use of a room air purifier.  相似文献   
7.
In this paper, a robust model-free controller for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is designed. The system consists of a PV generator connected to a three-phase grid by a DC/AC converter. The control objectives of the overall system are to extract maximum power from the PV source, to control reactive power exchange and to improve the quality of the current injected into the grid. The model-free control technique is based on the use of an ultra-local model instead of the dynamic model of the overall system. The local model is continuously updated based on a numerical differentiator using only the input–output behavior of the controlled system. The model-free controller consists of a classical feedback controller and a compensator for the effects of internal parameter changes and external disturbances. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of the controller for grid-connected PV systems.  相似文献   
8.
系统阐述了基准平面垂直断面法在爆破漏斗试验中测量爆破漏斗体积的基本原理,并将隧道激光断面仪应用于金厂河矿1 750 m水平15#采场底部切割巷道爆破漏斗试验爆破漏斗体积测量中。通过与传统体重法等计算法所得漏斗体积分析比较,结果表明基于隧道激光断面仪与3D Mine软件分析的基准平面垂直断面法实用性强、操作方便、结果直观可靠,达到试验预期目的。  相似文献   
9.
朱宏  张蔚翔  郭成英 《中州煤炭》2021,(11):239-243
为应对电力系统安全分析中的停机问题,基于概率法的方式,将常用的确定停机计算与加入了概率法的概率停机进行比较,研究了二者的区别与其在长期投资方向的不同。在进行电力系统停机分析时,通常会分别从确定停机与概率停机的角度出发,对其应急状态下的潮流进行计算。但前者的方法可能导致极低概率的停机事件被忽略,进而影响长期的资金投资。通过加入概率法的计算,使得对单个停机事件的判定由其具体的频率来确定,增加了系统运行的稳定性。  相似文献   
10.
电力系统维护是电力系统稳定运行的重要保障,应用智能算法的无人机电力巡检则为电力系统维护提供便捷。电力线提取是自主电力巡检以及保障飞行器低空飞行安全的关键技术,结合深度学习理论进行电力线提取是电力巡检的重要突破点。本文将深度学习方法用于电力线提取任务,结合电力线图像特点嵌入改进的图像输入策略和注意力模块,提出一种基于阶段注意力机制的电力线提取模型(SA-Unet)。本文提出的SA-Unet模型编码阶段采用阶段输入融合策略(Stage input fusion strategy, SIFS),充分利用图像的多尺度信息减少空间位置信息丢失。解码阶段通过嵌入阶段注意力模块(Stage attention module,SAM)聚焦电力线特征,从大量信息中快速筛选出高价值信息。实验结果表明,该方法在复杂背景的多场景中具有良好的性能。  相似文献   
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