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1.
IEC61508等标准提出了几种计算安全仪表系统需求时平均失效概率的方法,但是,对于具有冗余配置的复杂系统,随着组件数量的增加,系统的中间状态数量快速增长,用户难以构建马尔可夫模型,即便借助计算机来建模运算也较为耗时。提出了一种同型“K oo N”简并状态的马尔可夫建模的通用方法,首先是根据降级状态进行判断,将符合条件的状态进行简并,然后对标记为危险失效状态的概率进行计算。通过严格的理论推导,该简并状态方法可以在不损失精度的前提下简化马尔可夫建模。  相似文献   
2.
Hydrogen transportation by pipelines gradually becomes a critical engineering route in the worldwide adaptation of hydrogen as a form of clean energy. However, due to the hydrogen embrittlement effect, the compatibility of linepipe steels and associated welds with hydrogen is a major concern when designing hydrogen-carrying pipelines. When hydrogen enters the steels, their ductility, fracture resistance, and fatigue properties can be adversely altered. This paper reviews the status of several demonstration projects for natural gas-hydrogen blending and pure hydrogen transportation, the pipeline materials used and their operating parameters. This paper also compares the current standards of materials specifications for hydrogen pipeline systems from different parts of the world. The hydrogen compatibility and tolerance of varying grades of linepipe steels and the relevant testing methods for assessing the compatibility are then discussed, and the conservatism or the inadequacies of the test conditions of the current standards are pointed out for future improvement.  相似文献   
3.
The present study investigates the combined influence of Channel to Rib Width (CRW) ratio and clamping pressure on the structure and performance of High Temperature-Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (HT-PEMFC) using a three-dimensional numerical model developed previously. It also considers the impact of interfacial contact resistance between the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) and Bipolar Plate (BPP). The structural analysis of the single straight channel HT-PEMFC geometry shows that the von-Mises stress greatly increases in the GDL under the ribs as the CRW ratio increases resulting in considerably high deformation. The cell performance analysis depicts the significance of ohmic resistance and concentration polarization for different CRW ratios, particularly at higher operating current densities. However, in low to medium current density regions, the CRW ratio has little influence on cell performance. A substantial impact on the species, overpotential, and current distributions is observed. The findings also reveal that the CRW ratio significantly affects the temperature distribution in the cell.  相似文献   
4.
为了分析天问一号火星高分相机不同状态对性能的影响,最大限度提高使用效率,对高分相机的多状态、状态变化过程和仿真方法开展研究。首先,分析相机的组成和不同功能单元退化产生的影响。然后,分析相机在轨工作的多状态变化规律,建立转化过程模型。最后,提出基于多状态的仿真建模方法。案例仿真分析结果表明:考虑调整后实际有效数据获取概率提高评估准确性,通过敏感度分析也可有效提出调焦单元可靠性要求。多状态分析方法可有效评估火星相机或其他航天光学载荷可靠性水平,有效指导可靠性要求的制定和工程设计。  相似文献   
5.
The electrochemical interactions between aluminum alloy 7075 and low-carbon steels under gelled electrolytes were studied. Such electrolytes provided the opportunity to investigate both thick and thin electrolyte systems. The electrolyte was chemically modified to visually track the acidic fronts during the anodic reaction and the subsequent hydrolysis process. Two mathematical models were validated for both thick and ultrathin electrolytes. The acidification of thick electrolytes was extended some millimeters beyond the aluminum alloy surface, whereas the acidic front was localized next to the metallic joint using ultrathin electrolytes. The combination of both numerical and experimental results allows proving (and explaining why) that the acidification process is more aggressive under dilute than under concentrated electrolytes.  相似文献   
6.
Molecular mechanisms and process kinetics of crystallizing concomitant polymorphs remain poorly understood. Solvent-mediated phase transformation and concomitant crystallization are difficult to be distinguished in practice, as multiple forms can be detected at the same time. Herein, we developed a population balance model to simulate a concomitant crystallization process of two polymorphs of tolfenamic acid. Our kinetic modeling aims to understand concomitant crystallization and help guide form selection of such a molecular system. Crystallization kinetics of ethanolic solutions were uncovered from induction time measurements, as well as seeded and unseeded crystallization experiments. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the stable form I crystallizes concomitantly with the metastable form II. The faster growing form II results in an intermediate decline in the composition of form I in crystallized samples, a characteristic feature of the concomitantly crystallized system. A four-quadrant scheme of attainable polymorph outcome was simulated under various crystallization conditions.  相似文献   
7.
本文开发了一种新型的方舱夹芯板用室温固化高强度环氧结构胶黏剂,验证了其物化特性、相关力学性能和环境适应性。结果表明此胶黏剂具有优良性能,可以满足方舱用大板胶黏剂的使用需求。  相似文献   
8.
9.
Identification of feasible region of operations in multivariate processes is a problem of interest in several fields. This is particularly challenging when the process model is black-box in nature and/or is computationally expensive, as analytical solutions are not available and the number of possible model evaluations is limited. An efficient methodology is required to identify samples where the model is evaluated for developing a computationally efficient surrogate model. In this work, an artificial neural network based surrogate model is proposed which is integrated with a statistical-based approach (Jack-knifing) to estimate the variance of the surrogate model prediction. This allows implementation of an adaptive sampling approach where new samples are identified close to the feasible region boundary or in regions of high prediction uncertainty. The proposed approach performs better than a previously published kriging based method for different dimensionality case studies.  相似文献   
10.
This study investigates the behavior of fruit and vegetable samples during drying. The experimental data are fitted to several different thin-layer drying models. Regression analysis is used to determine model parameters, while statistical indicators serve to evaluate the goodness of fit. The power function model gives the best fit for all examined samples. Based on this model, different drying and heat storage technologies can be combined to ensure that the required residual moisture content of an agricultural product is reached. It is demonstrated on the case of a specific Togolese processing plant that under favorable conditions, fossil fuel consumption can be decreased by 33 %.  相似文献   
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