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1.
Cathode channel of a PEM fuel cell is the critical domain for the transport of water and heat. In this study, a mathematical model of water and heat transport in the cathode channel is established by considering two-phase flow of water and air as well as the phase change between water and vapor. The transport process of the species of air is governed by the convection-diffusion equation. The VOSET (coupled volume-of-fluid and level set method) method is used to track the interface between air and water, and the phase equilibrium method of water and vapor is employed to calculate the mass transfer rate on the two-phase interface. The present model is validated against the results in the literature, then applied to investigate the characteristics of two-phase flow and heat transfer in the cathode channel. The results indicate that in the inlet section, water droplets experience three evolution stages: the growing stage, the coalescence stage and the generation stage of dispersed water drops. However, in the middle and outlet sections of the channel, there are only two stages: the growth of water droplets, and the formation of a water film. The mass transfer rate of phase change in the inlet section of the channel varies over time, exhibiting an initial increase, a decrease followed, and a stabilization finally, with the maximum and stable values of 1.78 × 10?4 kg/s and 1.52 × 10?4 kg/s for Part 1, respectively. In the middle and outlet sections, the mass transfer rate increase firstly and then keeps stable gradually. Furthermore, regarding the distribution of the temperature and vapor mass fraction in the channel, near the upper surface of the channel, the temperature and vapor mass fraction first change slightly (x < 0.03 m) and then rapidly decrease with fluctuations (x > 0.03 m). In the middle of the channel, the temperature and vapor mass fraction slowly decrease with fluctuation.  相似文献   
2.
As sentinels of climate change and other anthropogenic forces, freshwater lakes are experiencing ecosystem disruptions at every level of the food web, beginning with the phytoplankton, a highly responsive group of organisms. Most studies regarding the effects of climate change on phytoplankton focus on a potential scenario in which temperatures continuously increase and droughts intersperse heavy precipitation events. Like much of the conterminous United States in 2019, the Muskegon River watershed (Michigan, USA) experienced record-breaking rainfall accompanied by unusually cool temperatures, affording an opportunity to explore how an alternate potential climate scenario may affect phytoplankton. We conducted biweekly sampling of environmental variables and phytoplankton in Muskegon Lake, a Great Lakes Area of Concern that connects to Lake Michigan. We compared environmental variables in 2019 to the previous eight years using long-term data from the Muskegon Lake Observatory buoy, and annual monitoring excursions provided historical phytoplankton data. Under cold and wet conditions, diatoms were the single dominant division throughout the entire growth season – an unprecedented scenario in Muskegon Lake. In 10 of the 13 biweekly sampling days in 2019, diatoms comprised over 75% of the phytoplankton community in the lake by count, indicating that the spring diatom bloom persisted through the fall. Additionally, phytoplankton seasonal succession and abundance patterns typically seen in this lake were absent. In a world experiencing reduced predictability, increased variability, and regional climate anomalies, studying periods of extreme weather events may offer insight into how natural systems will be affected and respond under future climate scenarios.  相似文献   
3.
In this paper, a robust model-free controller for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is designed. The system consists of a PV generator connected to a three-phase grid by a DC/AC converter. The control objectives of the overall system are to extract maximum power from the PV source, to control reactive power exchange and to improve the quality of the current injected into the grid. The model-free control technique is based on the use of an ultra-local model instead of the dynamic model of the overall system. The local model is continuously updated based on a numerical differentiator using only the input–output behavior of the controlled system. The model-free controller consists of a classical feedback controller and a compensator for the effects of internal parameter changes and external disturbances. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of the controller for grid-connected PV systems.  相似文献   
4.
An acoustic emission (AE) experiment was carried out to explore the AE location accuracy influenced by temperature. A hollow hemispherical specimen was used to simulate common underground structures. In the process of heating with the flame, the pulse signal of constant frequency was stimulated as an AE source. Then AE signals received by each sensor were collected and used for comparing localization accuracy at different temperatures. Results show that location errors of AE keep the same phenomenon in the early and middle heating stages. In the later stage of heating, location errors of AE increase sharply due to the appearance of cracks. This provides some beneficial suggestions on decreasing location errors of structural cracks caused by temperature and improves the ability of underground structure disaster prevention and control.  相似文献   
5.
针对现有基于视频监控的人流量统计方案成本高、算法复杂且不利于个人隐私保护的局限性,利用毫米波雷达体积小、成本低、分辨率高的特点,提出了一种基于双时间点检测的人流量监测方法。该方法先获取人体目标散射点位置和多普勒频移信息来构成点云数据,然后根据多普勒频移正负来判断人体的运动方向,并筛选具有高多普勒频移值的点云数据以降低干扰点对聚类结果的影响;在双时间点对特定区域内人员数量进行统计,并根据双时间点之间所获取的点云数据聚类结果对所统计人员数据进行修正。实验结果表明,该方法能够用匿名的方式以较高的正确率统计人员进出。  相似文献   
6.
To improve the convertibility of reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS), the concept of delayed reconfigurable manufacturing system (D-RMS) was proposed. RMS and D-RMS are both constructed around part family. However, D-RMS may suffer from ultra-long system problem with unacceptable idle machines using generic RMS part families. Besides, considering the complex basic system structure of D-RMS, machine selection of D-RMS should be addressed, including dedicated machine, flexible machine, and reconfigurable machine. Therefore, a system design method for D-RMS based on part family grouping and machine selection is proposed. Firstly, a part family grouping method is proposed for D-RMS that groups the parts with more former common operations into the same part family. The concept of longest relative position common operation subsequence (LPCS) is proposed. The similarity coefficient among the parts is calculated based on LPCS. The reciprocal value of the operation position of LPCS is adopted as the characteristic value. The average linkage clustering (ALC) algorithm is used to cluster the parts. Secondly, a machine selection method is proposed to complete the system design of D-RMS, including machine selection rules and the dividing point decision model. Finally, a case study is given to implement and verify the proposed system design method for D-RMS. The results show that the proposed system design method is effective, which can group parts with more former common operations into the same part family and select appropriate machine types.  相似文献   
7.
在无线传感器网络中,大量感知数据汇集到sink节点的采集方法会导致sink节点附近的节点能量耗尽,造成能量空洞。针对该问题,利用移动的sink节点进行数据收集是一种解决方法,其中移动sink的路径规划成为一个重要的问题。提出了一个移动sink路径规划算法,将无线传感器中随机分布的节点划分为不同的子区域,寻找sink节点移动的最佳转向点,最终得到最优的移动路径,以实现无线传感器网络生命周期最大化。仿真实验表明,与现有方案相比,该算法能显著延长网络的生命周期。  相似文献   
8.
The evaluation of cell's weatherability is of practical interest. To further improve the soluble lead flow battery's weatherability, physiochemical properties of electrolytes containing fluoborate, perchlorate, methanesulfonate and trifluoromethanesulfonate are investigated from ?60 to 50 °C. Activities of CF3SO3H and HClO4 are poor in trifluoromethanesulfonate and perchlorate solutions due to common anion effect. The solubility of lead salt can be improved by increasing temperature, but worsened by increasing acid's content. With the temperature increasing, the conductivity is enhanced, and the viscosity is lowered for four solutions. The same results have been found by increasing acid's content except for CF3SO3H. The high energy efficiency can be achieved for cells over ?40–0 °C using fluoborate and perchlorate solutions, 73.2% at ?40 °C and 78.1% at ?30 °C respectively. Over the temperature range of 20–50 °C, the cells with methanesulfonate and trifluoromethanesulfonate solutions have good performance, 77.4% and 73.7% at 50 °C respectively.  相似文献   
9.
Production planning and control (PPC) systems that employ aspects from both make-to-order (MTO) and make-to-stock (MTS) production control are known as hybrid MTS/MTO systems. While both MTO and MTS separately have been studied extensively, their combined use has received less attention. However, the literature on this topic is growing and this paper shows that the review performed in this paper is an important addition to the field. We categorise relevant literature according to a novel taxonomy and show that hybrid MTS/MTO production control can be used in different contexts. In addition, an overview of the modelling techniques and methods used in these papers is provided. Based on the reviewed literature, relevant research questions and directions for future research are identified. Finally, it is shown that hybrid MTS/MTO production control is prevalent in practice by discussing research with industrial applications. The paper contains an overview of research on hybrid MTS/MTO production control to be used as reference for researchers active in the field, and provides managerial insights and directions for future research on this topic.  相似文献   
10.
针对现有海量点云可视化方法存在索引构建时间长、内存占用大等问题,研究一种八叉树索引结合OSG分页结点的快速可视化方法,可在占用较小内存的基础上快速建立点云索引并实时调度。采用八叉树索引结构对海量点云进行数据组织,建立各层级的八叉树结点并以文件映射的方式分块保存,对结点文件重组织转换为支持OSG渲染引擎的多分辨率点云数据。采用基于OSG分页结点的实时调度技术,对海量点云进行高质量可视化。与目前两款主流的点云数据处理商业软件进行实验对比分析,结果表明所提方法具有索引建立速度快、内存占用小等优点,同时可视化交互更加流畅,适用于各种配置计算机下海量点云数据的调度管理与实时可视化。  相似文献   
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