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1.
In this article, pre-assembly hot-press pressure and thermal expansion effects in gas-diffusion layers (GDLs) are addressed to explore the practicalities of the constitutive model reported in the companion article. A facile technique is proposed to include deformation history dependent residual strain effects. The model is implemented in the numerical environment and compared with widely followed conventional models such as isotropic and orthotropic material models. With the normal and accelerated thermal expansion effects no significant variation in stresses or strains is reported with the compressible GDL model in contrast to the conventional incompressible form of the GDL model. The present work identifies the critical differences with advanced and extended variants of the model along with conventional GDL material models in terms of planar stress/strain distribution and the membrane response. Finally, the model is simulated for micro-cyclic stress loads of varying amplitudes that imitate the real working conditions of fuel cell. The inelastic energy dissipation in GDLs is predicted using the proposed model, which is utilized further to distinguish the safe (elastic) and unsafe (inelastic shakedown) operating limits. The inelastic collapse of GDLs is shown to be a active function of high amplitude micro-cyclic load with high initial clamping load.  相似文献   
2.
以智能反射面(intelligent reflecting surface,IRS)辅助的无线携能通信(simultaneous wireless information and power transfer,SWIPT)系统为背景,研究了该系统中基于能效优先的多天线发送端有源波束成形与IRS无源波束成形联合设计与优化方法。以最大化接收端的最小能效为优化目标,构造在发送端功率、接收端能量阈值、IRS相移等多约束下的非线性优化问题,用交替方向乘子法(alternating direction method of multipliers,ADMM)求解。采用Dinkelbach算法转化目标函数,通过奇异值分解(singular value decomposition,SVD)和半定松弛(semi-definite relaxation,SDR)得到发送端有源波束成形向量。采用SDR得到IRS相移矩阵与反射波束成形向量。结果表明,该系统显著降低了系统能量收集(energy harvesting,EH)接收端的能量阈值。当系统总电路功耗为?15 dBm时,所提方案的用户能效为300 KB/J。当IRS反射阵源数与发送天线数均为最大值时,系统可达最大能效。  相似文献   
3.
Today, utility meters for water are tested for measurement behavior at stable operating conditions at specified flow rates as part of the approval process. The measurement error that occurs during start and stop or when changing between flow rates may not be taken into account. In addition, there are new technologies whose measuring behavior under real-world conditions is only known to a limited extend. To take these facts into account, a new method has been developed and tested to determine the measurement behavior of water meters under dynamic load profiles as they occur in the real application. For this purpose, a test rig for flow rate measurement was extended by a cavitation nozzle apparatus and the generation of dynamic load profiles was validated. For the cavitation nozzles used, possible factors influencing the flow rate, such as temperature and purity of the water as well as the upstream pressure were investigated. Using different types of domestic water meters, the applicability of the dynamic test procedure was demonstrated and the measurement behavior of the meters was characterised.  相似文献   
4.
乡村产业中的化石能源设备逐渐被电能技术替代,引起了乡村负荷波动增大、部分时段产生集中高负荷的问题。为了解决以上问题,将低品位清洁能源应用至乡村的茶叶生产中,针对烘茶全过程的工艺要求提出了跨临界CO2热泵烘茶技术;并以某茶叶生产乡村为对象,对其代表台区的全年日用电量及产茶日负荷进行了分析,得出采用CO2热泵烘茶后其负荷得到大幅度削减,整体可降低至原负荷的39.6%~46.8%,峰值负荷与平时负荷的比值由原本的13.6降至5.4~6.2。跨临界CO2热泵应用至农产品生产中可有效缓解乡村供电压力。  相似文献   
5.
In this investigation, low-cement castables were prepared using 70% alumina grog aggregates obtained from crushed alumina brick waste. The aggregates were thermally treated at 1550 °C for 3 h. Four types of low-cement castables were prepared with various types of aggregates (alumina grog with or without thermal treatment) and fillers (with or without zircon addition), and they were evaluated in terms of their physical, thermal, and chemical properties. Microstructural analysis via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on the castables before and after slag attack. Compared to the other fabricated castables, the thermally treated alumina grog castables with zircon showed better physical properties, such as a higher bulk density, cold crushing strength, and modulus of rupture and a lower apparent porosity and water absorption. In addition, they had a higher positive linear thermal expansion, refractoriness under load, permanent linear change, and hot modulus of rupture. The results of the SEM with energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the prepared castables confirmed that the mullite and anorthite phases were predominant when zircon was not added and the zircon–mullite phase additionally appeared upon the incorporation of zircon. A quantitative elemental analysis via X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to determine the composition of the castables. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the alumina grog castables had a high mullite and low anorthite content, and the thermally treated alumina grog had a high anorthite, low mullite, and high zircon content. The improvement in the mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of the castables with thermally treated alumina grog and added zircon can be attributed to the formation of the zircon–mullite phase with a low mullite phase content.  相似文献   
6.
现阶段,为了探索创新性的发展途径,生态环境监测机构应始终增强风险控制意识。应加强风险管理,立足于风险控制,以求不断健康发展。  相似文献   
7.
To evaluate the separate impacts on human health and establish effective control strategies, it is crucial to estimate the contribution of outdoor infiltration and indoor emission to indoor PM2.5 in buildings. This study used an algorithm to automatically estimate the long-term time-resolved indoor PM2.5 of outdoor and indoor origin in real apartments with natural ventilation. The inputs for the algorithm were only the time-resolved indoor/outdoor PM2.5 concentrations and occupants’ window actions, which were easily obtained from the low-cost sensors. This study first applied the algorithm in an apartment in Tianjin, China. The indoor/outdoor contribution to the gross indoor exposure and time-resolved infiltration factor were automatically estimated using the algorithm. The influence of outdoor PM2.5 data source and algorithm parameters on the estimated results was analyzed. The algorithm was then applied in four other apartments located in Chongqing, Shenyang, Xi'an, and Urumqi to further demonstrate its feasibility. The results provided indirect evidence, such as the plausible explanations for seasonal and spatial variation, to partially support the success of the algorithm used in real apartments. Through the analysis, this study also identified several further development directions to facilitate the practical applications of the algorithm, such as robust long-term outdoor PM2.5 monitoring using low-cost light-scattering sensors.  相似文献   
8.
In this paper, a robust model-free controller for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is designed. The system consists of a PV generator connected to a three-phase grid by a DC/AC converter. The control objectives of the overall system are to extract maximum power from the PV source, to control reactive power exchange and to improve the quality of the current injected into the grid. The model-free control technique is based on the use of an ultra-local model instead of the dynamic model of the overall system. The local model is continuously updated based on a numerical differentiator using only the input–output behavior of the controlled system. The model-free controller consists of a classical feedback controller and a compensator for the effects of internal parameter changes and external disturbances. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of the controller for grid-connected PV systems.  相似文献   
9.
朱宏  张蔚翔  郭成英 《中州煤炭》2021,(11):239-243
为应对电力系统安全分析中的停机问题,基于概率法的方式,将常用的确定停机计算与加入了概率法的概率停机进行比较,研究了二者的区别与其在长期投资方向的不同。在进行电力系统停机分析时,通常会分别从确定停机与概率停机的角度出发,对其应急状态下的潮流进行计算。但前者的方法可能导致极低概率的停机事件被忽略,进而影响长期的资金投资。通过加入概率法的计算,使得对单个停机事件的判定由其具体的频率来确定,增加了系统运行的稳定性。  相似文献   
10.
电力系统维护是电力系统稳定运行的重要保障,应用智能算法的无人机电力巡检则为电力系统维护提供便捷。电力线提取是自主电力巡检以及保障飞行器低空飞行安全的关键技术,结合深度学习理论进行电力线提取是电力巡检的重要突破点。本文将深度学习方法用于电力线提取任务,结合电力线图像特点嵌入改进的图像输入策略和注意力模块,提出一种基于阶段注意力机制的电力线提取模型(SA-Unet)。本文提出的SA-Unet模型编码阶段采用阶段输入融合策略(Stage input fusion strategy, SIFS),充分利用图像的多尺度信息减少空间位置信息丢失。解码阶段通过嵌入阶段注意力模块(Stage attention module,SAM)聚焦电力线特征,从大量信息中快速筛选出高价值信息。实验结果表明,该方法在复杂背景的多场景中具有良好的性能。  相似文献   
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