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1.
Small object detection is challenging and far from satisfactory. Most general object detectors suffer from two critical issues with small objects: (1) Feature extractor based on classification network cannot express the characteristics of small objects reasonably due to insufficient appearance information of targets and a large amount of background interference around them. (2) The detector requires a much higher location accuracy for small objects than for general objects. This paper proposes an effective and efficient small object detector YOLSO to address the above problems. For feature representation, we analyze the drawbacks in previous backbones and present a Half-Space Shortcut(HSSC) module to build a background-aware backbone. Furthermore, a coarse-to-fine Feature Pyramid Enhancement(FPE) module is introduced for layer-wise aggregation at a granular level to enhance the semantic discriminability. For loss function, we propose an exponential L1 loss to promote the convergence of regression, and a focal IOU loss to focus on prime samples with high classification confidence and high IOU. Both of them significantly improves the location accuracy of small objects. The proposed YOLSO sets state-of-the-art results on two typical small object datasets, MOCOD and VeDAI, at a speed of over 200 FPS. In the meantime, it also outperforms the baseline YOLOv3 by a wide margin on the common COCO dataset.  相似文献   
2.
诱导式卫星欺骗干扰可诱导航空器逐渐偏离预定航迹,难以被发现,因此及时有效地检测干扰是飞行安全的保障。在现有紧组合导航体制基础上,设计了一种基于误差估值累加开环校正的紧组合导航结构,并证明了其性能与传统闭环校正紧组合导航性能等效。在此结构中,将紧组合导航系统与自适应序贯概率比检测方法结合,提出了一种基于误差估值累加开环校正的诱导式欺骗检测方法,融合紧组合导航信息与其他不受欺骗影响的导航信息,构建欺骗检测统计量进行诱导式欺骗检测。仿真结果表明,开环校正结构可避免随时间累加的惯性导航系统误差所导致的组合导航滤波器发散问题,同时欺骗检测方法可进一步提高算法对“最坏”情形下微小诱导式欺骗的检测效果。  相似文献   
3.
In recent years, the invert anomalies of operating railway tunnels in water-rich areas occur frequently, which greatly affect the transportation capacity of the railway lines. Tunnel drainage system is a crucial factor to ensure the invert stability by regulating the external water pressure (EWP). By means of a three-dimensional (3D) printing model, this paper experimentally investigates the deformation behavior of the invert for the tunnels with the traditional drainage system (TDS) widely used in China and its optimized drainage system (ODS) with bottom drainage function. Six test groups with a total of 110 test conditions were designed to consider the design factors and environmental factors in engineering practice, including layout of the drainage system, blockage of the drainage system and groundwater level fluctuation. It was found that there are significant differences in the water discharge, EWP and invert stability for the tunnels with the two drainage systems. Even with a dense arrangement of the external blind tubes, TDS was still difficult to eliminate the excessive EWP below the invert, which is the main cause for the invert instability. Blockage of drainage system further increased the invert uplift and aggravated the track irregularity, especially when the blockage degree is more than 50%. However, ODS can prevent these invert anomalies by reasonably controlling the EWP at tunnel bottom. Even when the groundwater level reached 60 m and the blind tubes were fully blocked, the invert stability can still be maintained and the railway track experienced a settlement of only 1.8 mm. Meanwhile, the on-site monitoring under several rainstorms further showed that the average EWP of the invert was controlled within 84 kPa, while the maximum settlement of the track slab was only 0.92 mm, which also was in good agreement with the results of model test.  相似文献   
4.
A ring-on-ring (ROR) test is a prevailing test method for evaluating the equi-biaxial strength of glass materials. However, current ROR test standards limit the strength and size of glass to prevent a nonlinear behavior. In this study, the feasibility of ROR testing for non-standard, high-strength glass, such as tempered or ion-exchanged rectangular glass is investigated. To this end, ROR simulation based on theory and experiment is conducted for thirty non-standard glasses with widths of 100–300 mm and aspect ratios of 1.0–2.0. As a result, the maximum measurable stress was about 215.6 MPa for 100 × 200 mm glass and 481.3 MPa for 300 × 600 mm glass with a 3% deviation, which is well above the strength of regular tempered glass. The main purpose of this work is to understand the range of aspect ratio of horizontal and vertical widths of a glass plate that can be evaluated by the standard ROR test.  相似文献   
5.
周忠彬  高金霞  袁宝慧 《爆破器材》2022,51(5):20-23,30
针对压制成型的PBX炸药装药,选择CT无损检测、巴西实验和扫描电镜检测等技术,对比研究了室温和加热两种温度下压制成型的炸药装药内部质量、静态力学性能和细观破坏形式。结果表明,加热压制有利于改善炸药装药的内部质量,可避免产生初始损伤,且提高了装药的力学性能。细观尺度上,室温压制成型的装药主要发生界面脱黏破坏,加热压制成型装药的主要破坏形式是穿晶断裂。  相似文献   
6.
系统阐述了基准平面垂直断面法在爆破漏斗试验中测量爆破漏斗体积的基本原理,并将隧道激光断面仪应用于金厂河矿1 750 m水平15#采场底部切割巷道爆破漏斗试验爆破漏斗体积测量中。通过与传统体重法等计算法所得漏斗体积分析比较,结果表明基于隧道激光断面仪与3D Mine软件分析的基准平面垂直断面法实用性强、操作方便、结果直观可靠,达到试验预期目的。  相似文献   
7.
Ti-based amorphous metallic glasses have excellent mechanical, physical, and chemical properties, which is an important development direction and research hotspot of metal composite reinforcement. As a stable, simple, efficient, and large-scale preparation technology of metallic powders, the gas atomization process provides an effective way of preparing amorphous metallic glasses. In this study, the controllable fabrication of a Ti-based amorphous powder, with high efficiency, has been realized by using gas atomization. The scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction are used to analyze surface morphology, element distribution, and phase structure, respectively. A microhardness tester is used to measure the mechanical property. An electrochemical workstation is used to characterize corrosion behavior. The results show that as-prepared microparticles are more uniform and exhibit good amorphous characteristics. The mechanical test shows that the hardness of amorphous powder is significantly increased as compared with that before preparation, which has the prospect of being an important part of engineering reinforced materials. Further electrochemical measurement shows that the corrosion resistance of the as-prepared sample is also significantly improved. This study has laid a solid foundation for expanding applications of Ti-based metallic glasses, especially in heavy-duty and corrosive domains.  相似文献   
8.
The effects of surface and interior degradation of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) on the performance and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been investigated using three freeze-thaw accelerated stress tests (ASTs). Three ASTs (ex-situ, in-situ, and new methods) are designed from freezing ?30 °C to thawing 80 °C by immersing, supplying, and bubbling, respectively. The ex-situ method is designed for surface degradation of the GDL. Change of surface morphology from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by surface degradation of GDL causes low capillary pressure which decreased PEMFC performance. The in-situ method is designed for the interior degradation of the GDL. A decrease in the ratio of the porosity to tortuosity by interior degradation of the GDL deteriorates PEMFC performance. Moreover, the new method showed combined effects for both surface and interior degradation of the GDL. It was identified that the main factor that deteriorated the fuel cell performance was the increase in mass transport resistance by interior degradation of GDL. In conclusion, this study aims to investigate the causes of degraded GDL on the PEMFC performance into the surface and interior degradation and provide the design guideline of high-durability GDL for the PEMFC.  相似文献   
9.
In this present work, the effect of lanthanum oxides (La2O3) on the thermal cycle behavior of TBC coatings and mechanical properties such as adhesion strength and microhardness of 8% Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (8YSZ) TBCs were investigated. CoNiCrAlY and aluminium alloy (Al–13%Si) were used as bond coat and substrate materials. 8YSZ and different wt % of La2O3 (10, 20, and 30%) top coatings were applied using the atmospheric plasma spray (APS) method. The thermal cycling test for TBC coated samples were conducted at 800 °C in the electric furnace. The XRD pattern shows that the La2O3 doped 8YSZ material transformed to cubic pyrochloric structured La2Zr2O7 during thermal cycling. Further, the Taguchi-based grey relation analysis (GRA) method was applied to optimize the TBC coating parameters to achieve better mechanical properties such as adhesion strength and microhardness. And the optimized La2O3/8YSZ TBC coating was coated on CRDI engine combustion chamber components. The engine was tested with microalgae biodiesel and hydrogen, and the results were promising for the TBC-coated engine. The engine performance increased while using La2O3/8YSZ coated components, and the emissions from engine exhaust gas such as CO, HC, and smoke reduced considerably. It was found that there was no separation crack and spallation of the coating layer in the microstructure. Ultimately, the microstructural analysis of the optimized TBC coated piston sample after 50 h of running in the diesel engine confirmed that the developed coating had a superior thermal insulation effect and longer life.  相似文献   
10.
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