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Polymer electrets have revealed great potential application in electromechanical devices because of the low weight, large quasi-piezoelectric sensitivity, and excellent flexibility. For an electret, a permanent and macroscopic electric field exists on the surface, principally led by a macroscopic electrostatic charge on the surface or a net orientation of polar groups inside the object. Here, progress in the development of polymer electrets is reviewed. After a brief retrospect of the research courses and those typical polymer electrets that are classified into fluorine polymer and nonfluorine polymer, we present a survey on the charging methods, including corona, soft X-ray, contact, thermal and monoenergetic particle beams. The latest representative applications (i.e., power harvesting, sensors, field effect transistors, and biomedicine) based on polymer electrets are also summarized. Finally, we complete this review with a discussion on perspectives and challenges in this field.  相似文献   
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5G蜂窝网络发展迅猛,其覆盖面积将逐渐增大,因此使用5G蜂窝网络进行定位是有研究潜力的研究方向。本文提出一种新的深度学习技术来实现高效、高精度和低占用的定位,以代替传统指纹定位过程中繁重的指纹库生成以及距离计算。该方法建立了一个特殊的卷积神经网络,并根据5G天线信号的接收信号强度指示、相位和到达角等特征量,选择合适的输入数据格式构造样本组建训练集,对该卷积神经网络进行训练。训练得到的卷积神经网络可以替代指纹定位中的庞大指纹库,非常有利于直接在5G移动设备端实现定位。虽然卷积神经网络在训练过程中需要大量时间,但在训练完毕后直接进行分类定位的速度非常快,可以保障定位实现的实时性。本文所实现的卷积神经网络权重与偏置所占内存不到0.5 MB,且能够在实际应用环境中以95%的定位准确率以及0.1 m的平均定位精度实现高精度定位。  相似文献   
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A digital light processing (DLP) technology has been developed for 3D printing lead-free barium titanate (BTO) piezoelectric ceramics. By comparing the curing and rheological properties of slurries with different photosensitive monomer, a high refractive index monomer acryloyl morpholine (ACMO) was chosen, and a design and preparation method of BTO slurry with high solid content, low viscosity and high curing ability was proposed. By further selecting the printing parameters, the single-layer exposure time was reduced and the forming efficiency has been greatly improved. Sintered specimens were obtained after a nitrogen-air double-step debinding and furnace sintering process, and the BTO ceramics fabricated with 80 wt% slurry shows the highest relative density (95.32 %) and piezoelectric constant (168.1 pC/N). Furthermore, complex-structured BTO ceramics were prepared, impregnated by epoxy resin and finally assembly made into hydrophones, which has significance for the future design and manufacture of piezoelectric ceramic-based composites that used in functional devices.  相似文献   
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This study investigates the behavior of fruit and vegetable samples during drying. The experimental data are fitted to several different thin-layer drying models. Regression analysis is used to determine model parameters, while statistical indicators serve to evaluate the goodness of fit. The power function model gives the best fit for all examined samples. Based on this model, different drying and heat storage technologies can be combined to ensure that the required residual moisture content of an agricultural product is reached. It is demonstrated on the case of a specific Togolese processing plant that under favorable conditions, fossil fuel consumption can be decreased by 33 %.  相似文献   
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This work aimed to examine the performance of the hybrid sintering of clay ceramic in a microwave furnace, compared to the sintering process in a conventional furnace. The raw materials were subjected to X-ray fluorescence, loss on ignition (LOI), X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, real specific mass, and thermogravimetric analyses. The red clay ceramic mass was prepared, extruded, pre-sintered in a conventional furnace at 600°C/60 min, and sintered at temperatures between 700 °C and 1100 °C. The sintering conventional (resistive oven) was carried out for 60 min with a heating rate of 10°C/min. In the microwave furnace, the sintering times were 5, 10, and 15 min, with a heating rate of 50°C/min, with a sintering chamber coated with silicon carbide (susceptor). The sintered specimens were characterized according to linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent specific mass, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy analysis, spectroscopy analysis in the ultraviolet and visible regions, microhardness, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that microwave sintering promoted an increase in the microhardness and apparent specific mass, and reduction in water absorption and apparent porosity values, due to greater densification in the microstructure. The best results occurred for specimens sintered at 1100°C.  相似文献   
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Monitoring the temperature in liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks on ships is important for the safety of maritime navigation. In addition, accurate temperature measurement is also required for commercial transactions. Temperature and pressure define the density of liquid hydrogen, which is directly linked to trading interests. In this study, we developed and tested a liquid hydrogen temperature monitoring system that uses platinum resistance sensors with a nominal electrical resistance of approximately 1000 Ω at room temperature, PT-1000, for marine applications. The temperature measurements were carried out using a newly developed temperature monitoring system under different pressure conditions. The measured values are compared with a calibrated reference PT-1000 resistance thermometer. We confirm a measurement accuracy of ±50 mK in a pressure range of 0.1 MPa–0.5 MPa.  相似文献   
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随着海洋资源勘探和海洋污染物监控工作的开展,水文数据的监测和采集等已经成为重要的研究方向。其中,水下无线传感器网络在水文数据采集过程中起着举足轻重的作用。本文研究的是水下无线传感器二维监测网络模型中,传感器节点数据采集的问题,其设计方法是通过自组织映射(Self-organizing mapping,SOM)对传感器节点进行路径最优化处理,结合优化的路径图形和K-means算法找到路径内部聚合点,利用聚合点和传感器的节点得到传感器通信半径内的数据采集点,最后通过SOM得到水下机器人(Autonomous underwater vehicle,AUV)到各个数据采集点采集数据的最优路径。经过实验验证,在水下1 200 m×1 750 m范围内布置52个传感器节点的情景下,数据采集点相比于传感器节点路径规划采用相同的采集顺序得到的路径优化了6.7%;对数据采集点重新进行自组织路径规划得到的路径比传感器结点路径的最优解提高了12.2%。增加传感器节点的数量,其结果也大致相同,因此采用该方法可以提高水下机器人采集数据的效率。  相似文献   
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Production and world consumption of spices are constantly increasing. Although the antimicrobial properties of some spices are well documented, their use in the agri-food industry is also responsible for microbial contamination and spoilage. Bacterial spores introduced by spices can withstand different preparation processes, particularly thermal treatments, leading to food alterations during storage. This review brings together data from the literature about the prevalence and concentrations of spore-forming bacteria in all commercially available spices. The sporeformers found in spices belong mainly to the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Such contaminations are very common and sometimes reach high levels, as in pepper and turmeric. Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus cereus are the most frequently detected species. Studying the harvesting, processing, and storage procedures for spices provides elements to explain why high prevalence and concentrations are observed. Spices are mostly produced in developing countries on small farms using traditional production methods. Spices become contaminated by bacterial spores in two main ways: by contact with soil during harvesting or drying, as for pepper, or by cross-contamination during the water-cooking step, as for turmeric. From these observations, we propose some recommendations. Different methods that can be used to eliminate bacterial spores from spices are presented indicating their efficiency and the limitations of their use.  相似文献   
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