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1.
Photoinduced alterations of light-sensitive artifacts represent one of the main problems that conservators and curators have to face for environmental control in museums and galleries. Therefore, increasing attention has been recently devoted to developing strategies of indoor light monitoring, especially aimed at minimizing the cumulated light exposure for the objects on exhibit. In this work a prototype of a light dosimeter, constituted by a photosensitive dyes/polymer mixture applied on a paper substrate, is presented. This indicator, specially designed for a preventive assessment of the risk of damage for highly light-sensitive objects, undergoes a progressive color variation as its exposure to the light increases. Different, easily distinguishable color steps are exhibited depending on the light dose received, so that the dosimeter can be used straightforwardly to have a first, instrumentation-free estimation of the total light exposure. A reflectance spectroscopy study in the 350-860 nm range was carried out on prototype dosimeters exposed to light emitted from a tungsten-halogen lamp to investigate the response of the dosimeter to the light and to study the fading mechanism. Two different approaches were evaluated for the calibration of the prototype: colorimetry and principal component analysis of the reflectance spectra. The usefulness of the two methods in providing a quantitative indication of the light dose received was evaluated.  相似文献   
2.
The stress state surrounding wounds in the skin plays an important role in the healing process; it affects the tissue strength, its aesthetic, and its resistance to infections. In this paper, the collagen fibril and elastin matrix damage mechanics following suture point application is investigated at the nanoscale; to this purpose, a model has been developed, which accounts for the architectural and mechanical features of the tissue components. Results indicate that the force displacement caused by the suture point application curve initially stiffens and subsequently softens. Softening occurs due at first to the enlargement of the elastin matrix damaged area and second to the collagen fibril disruption. Three regions may be identified: the first one, (0-0.38 N) refers to skin withstanding the force both in the collagen and elastin components; the second one (0.38-0.75 N) concerns the mechanism of elastin matrix damage; in the last one (>0.75 N), the collagen fibrils also fail. Accordingly, by properly choosing the number of suture points, it is possible to define the optimal suture points number for a given wound closure force.  相似文献   
3.
This work discusses the conflict between two of the main objectives of the EU Water Framework Directive: cost recovery and economic efficiency in the use of irrigation water. In the Mediterranean region, this conflict is commonly embedded in a state of under-utilization of irrigation networks managed by Water User Associations (WUAs). This under-utilization arises from factors independent of farmers’ choice, such as water shortage, crises in the sector, and changes to the Common Agricultural Policy. This prevents the facilities from operating at the minimum average cost. This paper argues that farmers should not suffer this inefficiency, which results in them paying higher water prices to cover the costs of water supply. Indeed, the application of the Water Directive should be rethought, taking into account the specific problems related to irrigation in the Mediterranean region. Based on an econometric analysis of the costs of water distribution in a WUA in Sardinia (Italy), we propose a payment system based on two components. Primarily there is a fee related to the number of hectares under irrigation. In addition there is a fee that considers the intensity of irrigation: this component is to encourage farmers to save water. The results show that the proposed approach has some desirable effects, including higher rates of cost recovery and possibly a reduction in the use of groundwater. Finally, the proposed system is not overly expensive for the rest of the community, who must bear the costs of inefficiencies in the use of irrigation water that do not depend on choices of farmers.  相似文献   
4.
In this work, we investigated a procedure which exploits microwave ovens to produce SiC- based components by reactive melt infiltration of silicon into graphite preforms. The employed oven is designed to grant optical access to the sample surface, which allows to measure its temperature evolution though a noncontact pyrometer. This signal was used as a feedback to control the power provided to the preform and as an experimental output whose analysis provides insight into the reaction mechanism. Specifically, it is found that complete infiltration is achieved much before the end of the reaction. The latter is not fully self-sustained as the global reaction rate continuously decreases with time until it is no more able to keep the temperature above the silicon solidification value. At that point, the reaction stops. The analysis of the processed samples proved that this procedure allows producing fully infiltrated samples without material failure by adjusting the heat provided during the infiltration stage rather than by tuning the preform structure and composition, which is the usual approach. The proposed method is less time and energy consuming than the standard one.  相似文献   
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One of the biggest challenges of the materials science is the mutual exclusion of strength and toughness. This issue was minimized by mimicking the natural structural materials. To date, few efforts were done regarding materials that should be used in harsh environments. In this work we present novel continuous carbon fiber reinforced ultra-high-temperature ceramic matrix composites (UHTCMCs) for aerospace featuring optimized fiber/matrix interfaces and fibers distribution. The microstructures – produced by electrophoretic deposition of ZrB2 on unidirectional carbon fibers followed by ZrB2 infiltration and hot pressing – show a maximum flexural strength and fracture toughness of 330 MPa and 14 MPa m1/2, respectively. Fracture surfaces are investigated to understand the mechanisms that affect strength and toughness. The EPD technique allows the achievement of a peculiar salami-inspired architecture alternating strong and weak interfaces.  相似文献   
8.
ABSTRACT

Kiwifruits are recognized as providing relief from constipation and symptoms of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). However, the underlying mechanisms, specifically in regards to gastrointestinal transit time and motility, are still not completely understood. This review provides an overview on the physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying constipation and IBS-C, the composition of kiwifruit, and recent advances in the research of kiwifruit and abdominal comfort. In addition, gaps in the research are highlighted and scientific studies of other foods with known effects on the gastrointestinal tract are consulted to find likely mechanisms of action. While the effects of kiwifruit fiber are well documented, observed increases in gastrointestinal motility caused by kiwifruit are not fully characterized.

There are a number of identified mechanisms that may be activated by kiwifruit compounds, such as the induction of motility via protease-activated signaling, modulation of microflora, changes in colonic methane status, bile flux, or mediation of inflammatory processes.  相似文献   
9.
Among the phenolic acids tested on the K562 cell line, a model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), caffeic acid (CA) was biologically active on sensitive and imatinib (IM)-resistant cells at micro-molar concentration, either in terms of reduction of cell proliferation or triggering of apoptosis. The CA treatment provoked mitochondrial membrane depolarization, genomic DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine exposure, hallmarks of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis following the treatment with comparable cytotoxic concentrations of IM or CA showed marked differences in the distribution profiles. The reduction of cell proliferation by CA administration was associated with increased expression of two cell cycle repressor genes, CDKN1A and CHES1, while IM at a cytotoxic concentration increased the CHES1 but not the CDKN1A expression. In addition, CA treatment affected the proliferation and triggered the apoptosis in IM-resistant cells. Taken together, these data suggested that CA induced the anti-proliferative effect and triggered apoptosis of CML cells by a different mechanism than IM. Finally, the combined administration of IM and CA at suboptimal concentrations evidenced a synergy of action in determining the anti-proliferative effect and triggering apoptosis. The ability of CA to potentiate the anti-leukemic effect of IM highlighted the nutraceutical potential of CA in CML.  相似文献   
10.
In recent decades, dysregulation of proteases and atypical proteolysis have become increasingly recognized as important hallmarks of cancer, driving community-wide efforts to explore the proteolytic landscape of oncologic disease. With more than 100 proteases currently associated with different aspects of cancer development and progression, there is a clear impetus to harness their potential in the context of oncology. Advances in the protease field have yielded technologies enabling sensitive protease detection in various settings, paving the way towards diagnostic profiling of disease-related protease activity patterns. Methods including activity-based probes and substrates, antibodies, and various nanosystems that generate reporter signals, i.e., for PET or MRI, after interaction with the target protease have shown potential for clinical translation. Nevertheless, these technologies are costly, not easily multiplexed, and require advanced imaging technologies. While the current clinical applications of protease-responsive technologies in oncologic settings are still limited, emerging technologies and protease sensors are poised to enable comprehensive exploration of the tumor proteolytic landscape as a diagnostic and therapeutic frontier. This review aims to give an overview of the most relevant classes of proteases as indicators for tumor diagnosis, current approaches to detect and monitor their activity in vivo, and associated therapeutic applications.  相似文献   
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