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1.
多传感器集成融合技术   总被引:14,自引:1,他引:13  
多传感器集成融合是人类进行区域感知的主要手段和关键技术,它是在通信科学、计算机科学、信息科学高度发展的基础上,在军事、工业、航天、机器人等领域新兴的科技前沿。本文对该领域当前已取得的成就从理论和实践两方面沿着历史的进程进行了概括和综述,指出研究的难点与不足之处。  相似文献
2.
This paper presents a complete system for constructing panoramic image mosaics from sequences of images. Our mosaic representation associates a transformation matrix with each input image, rather than explicitly projecting all of the images onto a common surface (e.g., a cylinder). In particular, to construct a full view panorama, we introduce a rotational mosaic representation that associates a rotation matrix (and optionally a focal length) with each input image. A patch-based alignment algorithm is developed to quickly align two images given motion models. Techniques for estimating and refining camera focal lengths are also presented.In order to reduce accumulated registration errors, we apply global alignment (block adjustment) to the whole sequence of images, which results in an optimally registered image mosaic. To compensate for small amounts of motion parallax introduced by translations of the camera and other unmodeled distortions, we use a local alignment (deghosting) technique which warps each image based on the results of pairwise local image registrations. By combining both global and local alignment, we significantly improve the quality of our image mosaics, thereby enabling the creation of full view panoramic mosaics with hand-held cameras.We also present an inverse texture mapping algorithm for efficiently extracting environment maps from our panoramic image mosaics. By mapping the mosaic onto an arbitrary texture-mapped polyhedron surrounding the origin, we can explore the virtual environment using standard 3D graphics viewers and hardware without requiring special-purpose players.An erratum to this article can be found at  相似文献
3.
通过融合距离图象和彩色图象为移动式机器人构造二维环境模型及进行障碍检测. 其中,环境模型采用了多分辨的二维网格表示结构,较好地解决了计算速度和模型精度之间 的矛盾;融合算法的设计是以推广的Dempaser-Shafer证据理论(DSTE)为基础,较好地解决 了融合信息的相关性问题;所论及的系统和算法已在真实环境下经过测试,其有效性已被实 验所证明.  相似文献
4.
虚拟现实技术在三峡升船机仿真中的应用   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
尹鹏吉  沈恺  张圣坤 《计算机工程》2002,28(11):131-133
虚拟现实是一门在近10年来得到飞速发展的综合性极强的应用学科,已经广泛地应用到了军事,医疗,工业生产,娱乐等领域,该文主要介绍了虚拟现实在三峡升船机仿真中的应用,并提出了在建立虚拟场景过程中碰到的一些问题及其解决方法,如模型简化,贴图处理等,最后,文章还对虚拟现实技术未来的发展方向进行了展望。  相似文献
5.
This paper presents a stochastic map building method for mobile robot using a 2-D laser range finder. Unlike other methods that are based on a set of geometric primitives, the presented method builds a map with a set of obstacle regions. In building a map of the environment, the presented algorithm represents the obstacles with a number of stochastic obstacle regions, each of which is characterized by its own stochastic parameters such as mean and covariance. Whereas the geometric primitives based map sometimes does not fit well to sensor data, the presented method reliably represents various types of obstacles including those of irregular walls and sets of tiny objects. Their shapes and features are easily extracted from the stochastic parameters of their obstacle regions, and are used to develop reliable navigation and obstacle avoidance algorithms. The algorithm updates the world map in real time by detecting the changes of each obstacle region. Consequently, it is adequate for modeling the quasi-static environment, which includes occasional changes in positions of the obstacles rather than constant dynamic moves of the obstacles. The presented map building method has successfully been implemented and tested on the ARES-II mobile robot system equipped with a LADAR 2D-laser range finder.  相似文献
6.
为了提高家用吸尘器使用的效率 ,并保证安全性和可靠性 ,提出利用超声波传感器来测距的环境信息采集的吸尘器清扫路径规划算法。首先简要描述了机器人路径规划的目标、超声波测距的工作原理 ;分析了家用自主式移动吸尘器设计时所面临的问题 ;提出了一种基于超声波传感器的家用自主式移动吸尘器路径规划算法 ,该算法有效地减少了吸尘器清扫某个具体环境的时间 ,提高其清扫效率 ,同时具有自动检测障碍物、自主避障的功能  相似文献
7.
自主吸尘机器人的研究现状   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
朱世强  刘瑜  庞作伟  金波 《机器人》2004,26(6):569-574
详细评述了自主吸尘机器人的研究特点和国内外的研究现状,分析了多传感器融合、环境建模、定位和路径规划等关键技术,指出了其中的难点和面临的问题.同时,探讨了自主吸尘机器人的发展趋势和未来的研究重点.  相似文献
8.
多尺度全覆盖视觉导航方法   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
朱志刚  石定机 《机器人》1998,20(4):266-272
本文提出面向任务的多尺度、全覆盖视野的综合视觉建模方法,为自然环境下的视觉导航问题提供了一个系统的解决方案:将时域大尺度的时空远视,空域大尺度的全局环视,和小尺度的双目注视相结合,综合完成机器人行驶方向确定、实时路面障碍物检测和机器人全局定位等视觉任务,其目标是建立面向任务的高效的环境模型,提高视觉处理的效率和鲁棒性.  相似文献
9.
Line Extraction in 2D Range Images for Mobile Robotics   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
This paper presents a geometrical feature detection framework for use with conventional 2D laser rangefinders. This framework is composed of three main procedures: data pre-processing, breakpoint detection and line extraction. In data pre-processing, low-level data organization and processing are discussed, with emphasis to sensor bias compensation. Breakpoint detection allows to determine sequences of measurements which are not interrupted by scanning surface changing. Two breakpoint detectors are investigated, one based on adaptive thresholding, and the other on Kalman filtering. Implementation and tuning of both detectors are also investigated. Line extraction is performed to each continuous scan sequence in a range image by applying line kernels. We have investigated two classic kernels, commonly used in mobile robots, and our Split-and-Merge Fuzzy (SMF) line extractor. SMF employs fuzzy clustering in a split-and-merge framework without the need to guess the number of clusters. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons using simulated and real images illustrate the main characteristics of the framework when using different methods for breakpoint and line detection. These comparisons illustrate the characteristics of each estimator, which can be exploited according to the platform computing power and the application accuracy requirements.  相似文献
10.
面向任务的机器人语言的实现   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
宋国宁  杨淮清 《机器人》1991,13(5):12-19
本文提出的面向任务的机器人语言是为移动机器人提供的一种编程工具。利用环境描述语言和其他灵活的人机对话方式建立环境模型;根据各种不同的性能指标,规划出最佳路径;根据安全等因素自动规划出最佳路径上的行走参数;对来自传感器的信息进行处理,以确定机器人实际位置及障碍情况;引导机器人沿规划好的路径行走,纠正偏差或重新选择避障路径。  相似文献
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