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1.
迁移学习研究进展   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:6  
近年来,迁移学习已经引起了广泛的关注和研究.迁移学习是运用已存有的知识对不同但相关领域问题进行求解的一种新的机器学习方法.它放宽了传统机器学习中的两个基本假设:(1)用于学习的训练样本与新的测试样本满足独立同分布的条件;(2)必须有足够可利用的训练样本才能学习得到一个好的分类模型.目的是迁移已有的知识来解决目标领域中仅有少量有标签样本数据甚至没有的学习问题.对迁移学习算法的研究以及相关理论研究的进展进行了综述,并介绍了在该领域所做的研究工作,特别是利用生成模型在概念层面建立迁移学习模型.最后介绍了迁移学习在文本分类、协同过滤等方面的应用工作,并指出了迁移学习下一步可能的研究方向.  相似文献
2.
Flexible latent variable models for multi-task learning   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
Given multiple prediction problems such as regression or classification, we are interested in a joint inference framework that can effectively share information between tasks to improve the prediction accuracy, especially when the number of training examples per problem is small. In this paper we propose a probabilistic framework which can support a set of latent variable models for different multi-task learning scenarios. We show that the framework is a generalization of standard learning methods for single prediction problems and it can effectively model the shared structure among different prediction tasks. Furthermore, we present efficient algorithms for the empirical Bayes method as well as point estimation. Our experiments on both simulated datasets and real world classification datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed models in two evaluation settings: a standard multi-task learning setting and a transfer learning setting.  相似文献
3.
Transfer in variable-reward hierarchical reinforcement learning   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
Transfer learning seeks to leverage previously learned tasks to achieve faster learning in a new task. In this paper, we consider transfer learning in the context of related but distinct Reinforcement Learning (RL) problems. In particular, our RL problems are derived from Semi-Markov Decision Processes (SMDPs) that share the same transition dynamics but have different reward functions that are linear in a set of reward features. We formally define the transfer learning problem in the context of RL as learning an efficient algorithm to solve any SMDP drawn from a fixed distribution after experiencing a finite number of them. Furthermore, we introduce an online algorithm to solve this problem, Variable-Reward Reinforcement Learning (VRRL), that compactly stores the optimal value functions for several SMDPs, and uses them to optimally initialize the value function for a new SMDP. We generalize our method to a hierarchical RL setting where the different SMDPs share the same task hierarchy. Our experimental results in a simplified real-time strategy domain show that significant transfer learning occurs in both flat and hierarchical settings. Transfer is especially effective in the hierarchical setting where the overall value functions are decomposed into subtask value functions which are more widely amenable to transfer across different SMDPs.  相似文献
4.
Convex multi-task feature learning   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
We present a method for learning sparse representations shared across multiple tasks. This method is a generalization of the well-known single-task 1-norm regularization. It is based on a novel non-convex regularizer which controls the number of learned features common across the tasks. We prove that the method is equivalent to solving a convex optimization problem for which there is an iterative algorithm which converges to an optimal solution. The algorithm has a simple interpretation: it alternately performs a supervised and an unsupervised step, where in the former step it learns task-specific functions and in the latter step it learns common-across-tasks sparse representations for these functions. We also provide an extension of the algorithm which learns sparse nonlinear representations using kernels. We report experiments on simulated and real data sets which demonstrate that the proposed method can both improve the performance relative to learning each task independently and lead to a few learned features common across related tasks. Our algorithm can also be used, as a special case, to simply select—not learn—a few common variables across the tasks. Editors: Daniel Silver, Kristin Bennett, Richard Caruana. This is a longer version of the conference paper (Argyriou et al. in Advances in neural information processing systems, vol. 19, 2007a). It includes new theoretical and experimental results.  相似文献
5.
Transfer learning is the ability to apply previously learned knowledge to new problems or domains. In qualitative reasoning, model formulation is the process of moving from the unruly, broad set of concepts used in everyday life to a concise, formal vocabulary of abstractions, assumptions, causal relationships, and models that support problem-solving. Approaching transfer learning from a model formulation perspective, we found that analogy with examples can be used to learn how to solve AP Physics style problems. We call this process analogical model formulation and implement it in the Companion cognitive architecture. A Companion begins with some basic mathematical skills, a broad common sense ontology, and some qualitative mechanics, but no equations. The Companion uses worked solutions, explanations of example problems at the level of detail appearing in textbooks, to learn what equations are relevant, how to use them, and the assumptions necessary to solve physics problems. We present an experiment, conducted by the Educational Testing Service, demonstrating that analogical model formulation enables a Companion to learn to solve AP Physics style problems. Across six different variations of relationships between base and target problems, or transfer levels, a Companion exhibited a 63% improvement in initial performance. While already a significant result, we describe an in-depth analysis of this experiment to pinpoint the causes of failures. Interestingly, the sources of failures were primarily due to errors in the externally generated problem and worked solution representations as well as some domain-specific problem-solving strategies, not analogical model formulation. To verify this, we describe a second experiment which was performed after fixing these problems. In this second experiment, a Companion achieved a 95.8% improvement in initial performance due to transfer, which is nearly perfect. We know of no other problem-solving experiments which demonstrate performance of analogical learning over systematic variations of relationships between problems at this scale.  相似文献
6.
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a standard methodology to evaluate the performance of a binary classification system. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a performance metric that summarizes how well a classifier separates two classes. Traditional AUC optimization techniques are supervised learning methods that utilize only labeled data (i.e., the true class is known for all data) to train the classifiers. In this work, inspired by semi-supervised and transductive learning, we propose two new AUC optimization algorithms hereby referred to as semi-supervised learning receiver operating characteristic (SSLROC) algorithms, which utilize unlabeled test samples in classifier training to maximize AUC. Unlabeled samples are incorporated into the AUC optimization process, and their ranking relationships to labeled positive and negative training samples are considered as optimization constraints. The introduced test samples will cause the learned decision boundary in a multi-dimensional feature space to adapt not only to the distribution of labeled training data, but also to the distribution of unlabeled test data. We formulate the semi-supervised AUC optimization problem as a semi-definite programming problem based on the margin maximization theory. The proposed methods SSLROC1 (1-norm) and SSLROC2 (2-norm) were evaluated using 34 (determined by power analysis) randomly selected datasets from the University of California, Irvine machine learning repository. Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed that the proposed methods achieved significant improvement compared with state-of-the-art methods. The proposed methods were also applied to a CT colonography dataset for colonic polyp classification and showed promising results.1  相似文献
7.
In transfer learning the aim is to solve new learning tasks using fewer examples by using information gained from solving related tasks. Existing transfer learning methods have been used successfully in practice and PAC analysis of these methods have been developed. But the key notion of relatedness between tasks has not yet been defined clearly, which makes it difficult to understand, let alone answer, questions that naturally arise in the context of transfer, such as, how much information to transfer, whether to transfer information, and how to transfer information across tasks. In this paper, we look at transfer learning from the perspective of Algorithmic Information Theory/Kolmogorov complexity theory, and formally solve these problems in the same sense Solomonoff Induction solves the problem of inductive inference. We define universal measures of relatedness between tasks, and use these measures to develop universally optimal Bayesian transfer learning methods. We also derive results in AIT that are interesting by themselves. To address a concern that arises from the theory, we also briefly look at the notion of Kolmogorov complexity of probability measures. Finally, we present a simple practical approximation to the theory to do transfer learning and show that even these are quite effective, allowing us to transfer across tasks that are superficially unrelated. The latter is an experimental feat which has not been achieved before, and thus shows the theory is also useful in constructing practical transfer algorithms.  相似文献
8.
杨沛  谭琦  丁月华 《计算机科学》2009,36(8):212-214
迁移学习能够有效地在相似任务之间进行信息的共享和迁移.之前针对多任务回归的迁移学习研究大多集中在线性系统上.针对非线性回归问题,提出了一种新的多任务回归模型--HiRBF.HiRBF基于层次贝叶斯模型,采用RBF神经网络进行回归学习,假设各个任务的输出层参数服从某种共同的先验分布.根据各个任务是否共享隐藏层,在构造HiRBF模型时有两种可选方案.在实验部分,将两种方案进行了对比,也将HiRBF与两种非迁移学习算法进行了对比,实验结果表明,HiRBF的预测性能大大优于其它两个算法.  相似文献
9.
Data stream classification is a hot topic in data mining research. The great challenge is that the class priors may evolve along the data sequence. Algorithms have been proposed to estimate the dynamic class priors and adjust the classifier accordingly. However, the existing algorithms do not perform well on prior estimation due to the lack of samples from the target distribution. Sample size has great effects in parameter estimation and small-sample effects greatly contaminate the estimation performance. In this paper, we propose a novel parameter estimation method called transfer estimation. Transfer estimation makes use of samples not only from the target distribution but also from similar distributions. We apply this new estimation method to the existing algorithms and obtain an improved algorithm. Experiments on both synthetic and real data sets show that the improved algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms on both class prior estimation and classification.  相似文献
10.
黄贤立 《计算机工程》2010,36(24):186-188
跨领域的文本分类,是指利用有标记领域的知识去帮助另一个概率分布不同的,未标记领域的知识进行分类的问题。从多视图学习的视角提出一个新的跨领域文本分类的方法(MTV算法)。通过在核空间典型相关分析中引入与标记相关的信息,MTV算法可以得到一个判别性能更优的公共子空间。在多个情感类文本数据上的实验表明,MTV算法可以大大提升传统监督式学习算法面对领域迁移时的分类性能,并且在引入判别式的核空间典型相关分析后,进一步优化性能。  相似文献
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