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1.
High-purity mullite ceramics, promising engineering ceramics for high-temperature applications, were fabricated using transient liquid phase sintering to improve their high-temperature mechanical properties. Small amounts of ultrafine alumina or silica powders were uniformly mixed with the mullite precursor depending on the silica-alumina ratio of the resulting ceramics to allow for the formation of a transient liquid phase during sintering, thus, enhancing densification at the early stage of sintering and mullite formation by the reaction between additional alumina and the residual glassy phase (mullitization) at the final stage of sintering. The addition of alumina powder to the silica-rich mullite precursor resulted in a reaction between the glassy silica and alumina phases during sintering, thereby forming a mullite phase without inhibiting densification. The addition of fine silica powder to the mullite single-phase precursor led to densification with an abnormal grain growth of mullite, whereas some of the added silica remained as a glassy phase after sintering. The resulting mullite ceramics prepared using different powder compositions showed different sintering behaviors, depending on the amount of alumina added. Upon selecting an optimum process and the amount of alumina to be added, the pure mullite ceramics obtained via transient liquid phase sintering exhibited high density (approximately 99%) and excellent high-temperature flexural strength (approximately 320 MPa) at 1500 °C in air. These results clearly demonstrate that pure mullite ceramics fabricated via transient liquid phase sintering with compositions close to those of stoichiometric mullite could be a promising process for the fabrication of high-temperature structural ceramics used in an ambient atmosphere. The transient liquid phase sintering process proposed in this study could be a powerful processing tool that allows for the preparation of superior high-temperature structural ceramics used in the ambient processing atmosphere.  相似文献   
2.
采用直流磁控溅射和后退火氧化工艺在p型GaAs单晶衬底上成功制备了n-VO_2/pGaAs异质结,研究了不同退火温度和退火时间对VO_2/GaAs异质结性能的影响,并分析其结晶取向、化学组分、膜层质量以及光电特性。结果表明,在退火时间2 h和退火温度693 K下能得到相变性能最佳的VO_2薄膜,相变前后电阻变化约2个数量级。VO_2/GaAs异质结在308 K、318 K和328 K温度下具有较好的整流特性,对应温度下的阈值跳变电压分别为6.9 V、6.6 V和6.2 V,该结果为基于VO_2相变特性的异质结光电器件的设计与应用提供了可行性。  相似文献   
3.
It is clear that the entire world have to research, develop, demonstrate and plan for alternative energy systems for shorter term and also longer term. As a clean energy carrier, hydrogen has become increasingly important. It owes its prestige to the increase within the energy costs as a result of the equivocalness in the future availability. Two phase flow and hydrogen gas flow dynamics effect on performance of water electrolysis. Hydrogen bubbles are recognized to influence energy and mass transfer in gas-evolving electrodes. The movement of hydrogen bubbles on the electrodes in alkaline electrolysis is known to affect the reaction efficiency. Within the scope of this research, a physical modeling for the alkaline electrolysis is determined and the studies about the two-phase flow model are carried out for this model. Internal and external forces acting on the resulting bubbles are also determined. In this research, the analytical solution of two-phase flow analysis of hydrogen in the electrolysis is analyzed.  相似文献   
4.
通过固液掺杂、等静压压制、中频烧结的方法,制备了不同的氧化镧、氧化钇、氧化锆三元掺杂成分比例的钨电极材料烧结棒材,探究了不同成分配比对样品显微组织、第二相粒子分布以及宏观力学性能的影响。结果表明,氧化镧、氧化钇、氧化锆三元复合添加能够有效改善第二相粒子在钨基体中的分布形态,降低第二相在晶界的过度富集,提高钨电极材料的综合力学性能。并且当添加成分镧、钇、锆质量比为3:1:1时,材料具有最好的综合力学性能,致密度可达96.04%,显微硬度可达549.37HV0.3,抗压强度可达3785MPa,原因是此配比下第二相粒子最为细小均匀,弥散程度最高,对基体晶粒的细化作用最好,该配比下钨基体平均晶粒尺寸达到10.3μm。  相似文献   
5.
5G蜂窝网络发展迅猛,其覆盖面积将逐渐增大,因此使用5G蜂窝网络进行定位是有研究潜力的研究方向。本文提出一种新的深度学习技术来实现高效、高精度和低占用的定位,以代替传统指纹定位过程中繁重的指纹库生成以及距离计算。该方法建立了一个特殊的卷积神经网络,并根据5G天线信号的接收信号强度指示、相位和到达角等特征量,选择合适的输入数据格式构造样本组建训练集,对该卷积神经网络进行训练。训练得到的卷积神经网络可以替代指纹定位中的庞大指纹库,非常有利于直接在5G移动设备端实现定位。虽然卷积神经网络在训练过程中需要大量时间,但在训练完毕后直接进行分类定位的速度非常快,可以保障定位实现的实时性。本文所实现的卷积神经网络权重与偏置所占内存不到0.5 MB,且能够在实际应用环境中以95%的定位准确率以及0.1 m的平均定位精度实现高精度定位。  相似文献   
6.
边坡位移的时间序列曲线存在复杂的非线性特性,传统的预测模型精度不足以满足预测要求。为此提出了基于变分模态分解的鸟群优化-核极限学习机的预测模型,并用于河北省某水泥厂的边坡位移预测。该方法首先采用VMD把边坡位移序列分解为一系列的有限带宽的子序列,再对各子序列分别采用相空间重构并用核极限学习机预测,采用鸟群算法优化相空间重构的嵌入维度和KELM中惩罚系数和核参数三个数值,以取得最优预测模型。最后将各个子序列预测值叠加,得到边坡位移的最终预测值。结果表明:和KELM、BSA-KELM、EEMD-BSA-KELM模型相比,基于VMD的BSA-KELM预测精度更高,为边坡位移的预测提供一种有效的方法。  相似文献   
7.
Cathode channel of a PEM fuel cell is the critical domain for the transport of water and heat. In this study, a mathematical model of water and heat transport in the cathode channel is established by considering two-phase flow of water and air as well as the phase change between water and vapor. The transport process of the species of air is governed by the convection-diffusion equation. The VOSET (coupled volume-of-fluid and level set method) method is used to track the interface between air and water, and the phase equilibrium method of water and vapor is employed to calculate the mass transfer rate on the two-phase interface. The present model is validated against the results in the literature, then applied to investigate the characteristics of two-phase flow and heat transfer in the cathode channel. The results indicate that in the inlet section, water droplets experience three evolution stages: the growing stage, the coalescence stage and the generation stage of dispersed water drops. However, in the middle and outlet sections of the channel, there are only two stages: the growth of water droplets, and the formation of a water film. The mass transfer rate of phase change in the inlet section of the channel varies over time, exhibiting an initial increase, a decrease followed, and a stabilization finally, with the maximum and stable values of 1.78 × 10?4 kg/s and 1.52 × 10?4 kg/s for Part 1, respectively. In the middle and outlet sections, the mass transfer rate increase firstly and then keeps stable gradually. Furthermore, regarding the distribution of the temperature and vapor mass fraction in the channel, near the upper surface of the channel, the temperature and vapor mass fraction first change slightly (x < 0.03 m) and then rapidly decrease with fluctuations (x > 0.03 m). In the middle of the channel, the temperature and vapor mass fraction slowly decrease with fluctuation.  相似文献   
8.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(12):17185-17195
This study introduces micro-nano bubbles (MNBs) in the process of polishing zirconia ceramics through sodium borohydride hydrolysis to assist in polishing yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Compared with conventional silica sol, the material removal rate using this MNB-assisted technology is increased by 261.4%, and a lower surface roughness of 1.28 nm can be obtained. Raman, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to study the structural changes and phase stability of the YSZ during different polishing periods. The results show that MNBs are the key factor promoting the transformation from the tetragonal phase to the monoclinic phase on the surface of the YSZ during polishing. The H2O molecules (or OH? ions) on the surface of the YSZ are driven by the thermal kinetic energy of the micro-jets formed by the collapse of micro-bubbles, and they permeate to occupy more oxygen vacancies in the crystal lattice. Atomic force microscopy and nano-indentation tests show that the micro-protrusions on the surface of the YSZ preferentially undergo phase transformation, and their hardness decreases. This promotes abrasives to preferentially remove rough spots on the surface and achieve more efficient polishing. We believe this work adds valuable insights regarding low-temperature degradation and ultra-precise machining of YSZ ceramic materials.  相似文献   
9.
The onset of hybrid alumina-based composites, which combines two or more nano-particles within the alumina matrix has already shown promising improvements in the matrix material. However, variations in mechanical properties including the optimum compositions that give improved properties faced with the development of alumina-based composites require further studies to understand the underlying mechanisms and synergistic effects of the nano-particle additions on the alumina matrix. In the current study, the structure and properties of Al?O?-graphene (0.5 wt%) and Al?O?–ZrO? (4 wt% and 10 wt%) composites fabricated via hot-pressing was studied as a baseline for multiple combinations. Even though the addition of 10 wt%ZrO? resulted in a 23% reduction in the grain size of the alumina matrix, the 4 wt%ZrO? addition resulted in a 14% increase in grain size as compared to the parent alumina matrix. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there was approximately 85% monoclinic (m-ZrO2) vs. 15% tetragonal (t-ZrO2) crystal structures in the A4ZrO? sample whilst the A10ZrO? had approximately 93% m-ZrO2 vs. 7% t-ZrO2. The high-volume fraction of the monoclinic crystal structures in the A10ZrO? accounts for the induced microcracks in the sample since the transition from the ductile-tetragonal to brittle-monoclinic is associated with the exertion of compressive stresses on the alumina matrix by the associated elastic volume expansion of m-ZrO2. Also, the addition of 0.5 wt%graphene resulted in about 37% reduction in the grain size of the alumina matrix, and approximately 10% increase in hardness as a result of the distribution of graphene along the grain boundaries of the parent alumina matrix, which restricts grain coalescence and growth during processing. Furthermore, an increase up to 115% and 164% were observed in the fracture toughness (KIC) with the inclusion of 0.5 wt%graphene and 10 wt%ZrO? respectively, which was primarily ascribed to the fine-grained microstructures and toughening mechanisms of the intergranular graphene and ZrO? particles.  相似文献   
10.
A 2D computational fluid dynamics (Eulerian–Eulerian) multiphase flow model coupled with a population balance model (CFD-PBM) was implemented to investigate the fluidization structure in terms of entrance region in an industrial-scale gas phase fluidized bed reactor. The simulation results were compared with the industrial data, and good agreement was observed. Two cases including perforated distributor and complete sparger were applied to examine the flow structure through the bed. The parametric sensitivity analysis of time step, number of node, drag coefficient, and specularity coefficient was carried out. It was found that the results were more sensitive to the drag model. The results showed that the entrance configuration has significant effect on the flow structure. While the dead zones are created in both corners of the distributors, the perforated distributor generates more startup bubbles, heterogeneous flow field, and better gas–solid interaction above the entrance region due to jet formation.  相似文献   
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