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Sweet pickled mango named Ma-Muang Bao Chae-Im is a traditional preserved mango from Hat Yai, Thailand. This study investigated (I) volatile and non-volatile compound profiles of commercial Ma-Muang Bao Chae-Im and (II) their relationship to consumer preference. Untargeted metabolomics profiling was performed by gas chromatography-mass quadrupole-time of flight analysis. There were 117 volatile and 44 non-volatile compounds annotated in six commercial brands of Ma-Muang Bao Chae-Im. Furthermore, 46 volatile and 19 non-volatile compounds’ discriminant markers were found by Partial least square discriminant analysis. Among those markers, sorbic and benzoic acid were observed in several brands; moreover, the combination of both compounds altered the volatile profile, especially the ester group. Partial least square regression revealed that overall consumer liking is correlated to 1-heptanol; 1-octanol; acetoin; acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester; D-manitol; terpenes and terpenoids, while firmness to sucrose and L-(-)-sorbofuranose. On the other hand, most ester compounds were not related to consumer preference.  相似文献   
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Speciation of chromium (Cr) in the fly ash collected from oxy-firing of Victorian brown coal has been reported for the first time to address the potential formation of toxic Cr(VI) and the variation of the quantities of Cr(III)-bearing species with flue gas composition. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) was employed for Cr speciation. Apart from a pure O(2)/CO(2) mixture (27/73, v/v) versus air, the O(2)/CO(2) mixtures doped with SO(2), HCl, and steam individually or together to simulate real flue gas have also been tested. Under all of the conditions tested here, the fractions of Cr(VI) in the fly ashes are insignificant, constituting no more than 5% of the total Cr. The test of Cr-doped brown coal in pyrolysis further confirmed that the Cr(VI) formation preferentially occurred through a local oxidation of Cr(III) at the oxygen-containing functions sites within coal matrix, rather than through an oxidation by external bulk O(2). This reaction is also highly temperature-dependent and slower than the interaction between Cr(III) and other metals such as iron oxide. Increasing temperature to 1000 °C inhibited the oxidation of Cr(IIII) to Cr(VI). Shifting the combustion gas from air to O(2)/CO(2) exerted little effect on the Cr(VI) formation. Instead, the formation of iron chromite (FeCr(2)O(4)) was facilitated in O(2)/CO(2), probably due to a strong reducing microenvironment formed by the CO(2) gasification reaction within the char matrix. The accumulation of HCl in flue gas favored the vaporization of chromium as gaseous chloride/oxychloride, as expected. The coexistence of SO(2) inhibited this phenomenon by promoting the formation of sulfate. The presence of steam was even beneficial for the inhibition of water-soluble Cr sulfate through stabilizing the majority of Cr into alumino-silicate which is in the slagging phase.  相似文献   
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This paper addressed the probability of the generation of ultra-clean coal from chemical leaching of low-rank Victorian brown coal. Sequential leaching was employed to determine the modes of occurrence of the major elements in the two coals studied, including Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, and Si. The results indicate that, the modes of occurrence of individual metals vary greatly with brown coal sample and elemental type. For one brown coal tested, it is dominated by water-soluble and ammonium acetate-soluble ion-exchangeable cations. Therefore, a single washing through the use of woody biomass-derived pyroligneous acid or citric acid easily reduced the concentrations of its overall ash and even sulphur and chlorine to meet the requirements for gas turbine fuel. The leaching of the organically bound cations in this coal was also very rapid and completed in 5 min. In contrast, another brown coal tested is mainly composed of quartz and/or clay compounds which remained intact even after being leached with 5 M nitric acid. These mineral grains possess two peak size ranges in the coal, 1.0-2.2 μm and 4.6-10 μm. The former size bin was embedded deeply in coal matrix, and hence, its leaching upon acids was very slow when compared with coarse particles which are mostly discrete grains residing separately from coal matrix. The Na-EDTA was found to be able to mobilise the small grains substantially through its Na ion to penetrate coal matrix to react with Al, forming acid-soluble Na aluminates. The ammonium acetate-insoluble Ti and Fe polyhedra were also mobilised by the EDTA. Accordingly, the overall ash content in coal residue accounts for ~ 1.5 wt.%, relative to 2.6 wt.% in the corresponding raw coal and 2.0 wt.% in the ammonium acetate-insoluble residue.  相似文献   
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