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1.
《Ceramics International》2021,47(19):27535-27544
In this paper, we present an efficient and effective method to predict the pressure dependence and temperature dependence of second-order elastic constants (SOECs) by introducing third-order elastic constants (TOECs) in the monocarbide ultrahigh temperature ceramics. The method is validated by comparing with experiments and previous calculations in four TMCs (TM = Nb, Ti, V, Zr). Using this method, we investigate the derivatives of SOECs against pressure and temperature as well as the anisotropic properties of polycrystalline modulus. In addition, we fit the SOECs with pressure and temperature under the framework of CALPHAD for practice usage.  相似文献   
2.
孙搏  付淑军  陈桂良  李丽 《金属学报》2021,26(10):1095-1102
药物相互作用改变了剂量效应关系,可能会降低疗效或增加毒性,是临床应用中合并用药治疗时重要的考虑因素。预测具有临床意义的药物相互作用是药物研发过程中获益风险评估的重要环节。本文概述了药物研发过程中药物相互作用研究的目的和意义,体内和体外研究的主要内容;梳理分析了2020年国家药品监督管理局(National Medical Products Administration, NMPA)和美国食品药品监督管理局(Food and Drug Administration, FDA)批准上市的新药药物相互作用研究情况,旨在为我国药物研发过程中药物相互作用研究及其监管审评提供参考。  相似文献   
3.
Smartphones are being used and relied on by people more than ever before. The open connectivity brings with it great convenience and leads to a variety of risks that cannot be overlooked. Smartphone vendors, security policy designers, and security application providers have put a variety of practical efforts to secure smartphones, and researchers have conducted extensive research on threat sources, security techniques, and user security behaviors. Regrettably, smartphone users do not pay enough attention to mobile security, making many efforts futile. This study identifies this gap between technology affordance and user requirements, and attempts to investigate the asymmetric perceptions toward security features between developers and users, between users and users, as well as between different security features. These asymmetric perceptions include perceptions of quality, perceptions of importance, and perceptions of satisfaction. After scoping the range of smartphone security features, this study conducts an improved Kano-based method and exhaustively analyzes the 245 collected samples using correspondence analysis and importance satisfaction analysis. The 14 security features of the smartphone are divided into four Kano quality types and the perceived quality differences between developers and users are compared. Correspondence analysis is utilized to capture the relationship between the perceived importance of security features across different groups of respondents, and results of importance-satisfaction analysis provide the basis for the developmental path and resource reallocation strategy of security features. This article offers new insights for researchers as well as practitioners of smartphone security.  相似文献   
4.
结合全球倡导的营养导向型农业和功能性食品的内容,首次提出“功能性小麦品种”的概念,将其定义为“含有对人体健康有益的活性成分,可调节人体有益代谢,能给人体健康带来某种益处或满足特定人群的特殊需求,同时可以作为日常食物的口感正常、无毒副作用的小麦品种类型”;结合疫情警示和我国进入后工业时代后,人们需求必将由“吃得饱”、“吃得好”向“吃得健康”转变,因而提出继高产品种、优质品种之后培育“功能性小麦品种”的育种目标。根据多年关于小麦淀粉、蛋白、酯类和其他成分的功能研究结果,介绍新育成的“麦黄酮”、“高色素”、“高抗性淀粉”、“富锌”、“低醇溶蛋白”和“低植酸”等功能性小麦新品种(系)的营养特性和农艺产量状况;根据“健康中国2030”规划等国家战略,进行“功能性品种培育是解决我国功能性食品‘卡脖子’的关键基础,一种功能性品种可以形成一类功能性食品,多种功能性品种可以形成我国功能性面制品产业,推动我国整个食品工业的发展”的前景展望;根据功能性品种及其食品的稳定性和可靠性是产品和市场的“生命线”,从对消费者负责的高度,提出关于“功能性农作物品种审定导向和组建功能性成分检测机构;编制有关功能性品种和食品的国家或行业标准,设立功能性食品和功能性农作物品种的商业标志,保证我国功能性农作物品种及其食品健康发展”等方面的具体建议。  相似文献   
5.
To enhance chemical stability and suppress of aggregation of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs), which are used as a support for thermoresponsive copolymer immobilization, silica coating of the MNPs is applied via the electrooxidation method. Although the resulting silica coated-MNPs also formed aggregates, the size distribution of the aggregate shifted to smaller size range. Because of that, the surface area available for copolymer immobilization increased approximately 6.7 times at maximum as compared with that of the uncoated MNPs. It contributed to the increase of the amount of the immobilized copolymer on the silica-coated MNPs, which is approximately four times larger than that on the uncoated MNPs. Fe3O4 dissolution test confirmed enhancement of chemical stability of MNPs. The thermoresponsive copolymer immobilized on the silica-coated MNPs shows the ability to recycle Cu(II) ion from Cu(II) containing solution by changing temperature with significantly shorter time than those in other thermoresponsive adsorbents in gel form.  相似文献   
6.
Succinic acid is an important synthetic monomer but it is difficult to use it as a precursor for synthesizing high molecular weight polyamide, due to its tendency to perform intra-cyclization reaction at high temperature. In order to solve this problem, in this paper, the direct solid-state polymerization (DSSP) method with the initial reactant, nylon salt which was composed of 1, 5-diaminopentane, succinic acid, and terephthalic acid, was applied to synthesize the bio-based copolyamide PA 5T/54. In comparison with the conventional melting polymerization method, the DSSP method can prevent the cyclization reaction of succinic acid effectively due to the lower reacting temperature as well as the restriction effect of the nylon salt. As a result, the product fabricated by DSSP method has higher molecular weight and much lighter color from red to white. Therefore, the DSSP method is advantageous for the synthesis of the polymers or copolymers composed of the succinic acid as the monomer. Furthermore, the polymerization mechanism proposed in this work can serve as a guidance for the design of the molecular structure and control of the polymerization process.  相似文献   
7.
Perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer membranes have been widely used as proton conducting membranes in various electrochemical processes such as polymer electrolyte fuel cells and water electrolysis. While their thermal stability has been studied by thermogravimetry and analysis of low molecular weight products, their decomposition mechanism is little understood. In this study a newly developed methodology of thermal desorption and pyrolysis in combination with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry is applied for Nafion membrane. An ambient ionization source and a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled unambiguous assignment of gaseous products. Thermal decomposition is initiated by side chain detachment above 350°C, which leaves carbonyls on the main chain at the locations of the side chains. Perfluoroalkanes are released above 400°C by main chain scission and their further decomposition products dominate above 500 °C. DFT calculation of reaction energies and barrier heights of model compounds support proposed decomposition reactions.  相似文献   
8.
A detailed study of butyl rubber-based vibration damping formulations linking their composition, morphology, phase structure, viscosity, mechanical loss factor, and other characteristics is presented for the first time. High performance of the compositions including aromatic petroleum oil is explained by limited solubility of the plasticizer that leads to the formation of a highly-viscous emulsion (η20°C ≈ 1000 Pa·s) consisting of a swollen butyl rubber matrix and dispersed oil droplets in the broad composition range. Chalk is found to be the best inorganic filler as its spherical particles provide strong adhesion to the reinforcing layer of aluminum foil. Aiming to eliminate ecologically unfriendly aromatic compounds, a new low-cost binding agent formulation based on butyl rubber mixed with polyisobutylene and highly refined mineral oil is suggested. Being environmentally safe, it possesses high viscosity of 1000–3000 Pa·s, cohesion strength of 3.5–5.0 N/cm, penetration of 4.5–6.0 mm, and mechanical loss factor up to 0.34 at room temperature, which are as good as, or even better than, the properties of currently produced vibration damping materials containing aromatic compounds. New materials can be used in car and aircraft parts for effective vibration isolation.  相似文献   
9.
Mytimycins are cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that show antifungal properties. These peptides are part of the immune network that constitutes the defense system of the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The immune system of mussels has been increasingly studied in the last decade due to its great efficiency, since these molluscs, particularly resistant to adverse conditions and pathogens, are present all over the world, being considered as an invasive species. The recent sequencing of the mussel genome has greatly simplified the genetic study of some of its immune genes. In the present work, we describe a total of 106 different mytimycin variants in 16 individual mussel genomes. The 13 highly supported mytimycin clusters (A–M) identified with phylogenetic inference were found to be subject to the presence/absence variation, a widespread phenomenon in mussels. We also identified a block of conserved residues evolving under purifying selection, which may indicate the “functional core” of the mature peptide, and a conserved set of 10 invariable plus 6 accessory cysteines which constitute a plastic disulfide array. Finally, we extended the taxonomic range of distribution of mytimycins among Mytilida, identifying novel sequences in M. coruscus, M. californianus, P. viridis, L. fortunei, M. philippinarum, M. modiolus, and P. purpuratus.  相似文献   
10.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) possesses brilliant and excellent properties, including excellent corrosion resistance as well as outstanding wear resistance. Ni and B co-doped DLC films were deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy by electrodeposition under mild conditions (300 V and 25°C). Uniform and dense morphology of co-doped DLC films were observed, and Ni and B were uniformly incorporated into the carbon-based films. Among all the electrodeposits, the appearance of D and G peaks near 1330 and 1570 cm−1 revealed that the as-deposited films were typical DLC films. As the addition of Ni was increased to 0.05 g, the highest microindentation hardness, the lowest friction coefficient, and wear loss were achieved to be 164.5 HV, 0.3, and 0.6 × 10−5 kg/m, respectively. The amorphous carbon films fabricated at 0.05 g Ni had the lowest corrosion current density and the most positive corrosion potential, which was mainly due to the small and dense granular structure effectively hindering the penetration of corrosion media.  相似文献   
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