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1.
An ecofriendly and biodegradable porous structure was prepared from drying aqueous foams based on nano fibrillated cellulose (NFC), extracted from softwood pulp by subcritical water/CO2 treatment (SC-NFC). The primary aim of this work was to use the modified SC-NFC as stabilizer for a water-based Pickering emulsion which upon drying, yielded porous cellulosic materials, a good dye adsorbent. In order to exploit the carboxymethylated SC-NFC (CMSC-NFC, with a degree of substitution of 0.35 and a charge density of 649 μeqv/g) as a stabilizer for water-based Pickering emulsion in subsequent step, an optimized quantity of octyl amine (30 mg/g of SC-NFC) was added to make them partially hydrophobic. A series of dry foam structures were prepared by varying the concentrations of treated CMSC-NFCs and 4 wt% was found to be the optimum concentration to yield foam with high porosity (99%) and low density (0.038 g/cc) along with high compression strength (0.24 MPa), superior to the conventionally extracted NFC. The foams were applied to capture as high as 98% of methylene blue dyes, making them a potential green candidate for treating industrial effluent. In addition, the dye adsorption kinetics and isotherms were found to be well suited with second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models.  相似文献   
2.
Sensitivity and multi-directional motivation are major two factors for developing optimized humidity-response materials, which are promising for sensing, energy production, etc. Organic functional groups are commonly used as the water sensitive units through hydrogen bond interactions with water molecules in actuators. The multi-coordination ability of inorganic ions implies that the inorganic ionic compounds are potentially superior water sensitive units. However, the particle forms of inorganic ionic compounds produced by classical nucleation limit the number of exposed ions to interact with water. Recent progress on the inorganic ionic oligomers has broken through the limitation of classical nucleation, and realized the molecular-scaled incorporation of inorganic ionic compounds into an organic matrix. Here, the incorporation of hydrophilic calcium carbonate ionic oligomers into hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is demonstrated. The ultra-small calcium carbonate oligomers within a PVDF film endow it with an ultra-sensitive, reversible, and bidirectional response. The motivation ability is superior to other bidirectional humidity-actuators at present, which realizes self-motivation on an ice surface, converting the chemical potential energy of the humidity gradient from ice to kinetic energy.  相似文献   
3.
针对民乐县农村人饮机井水位自动供水系统控制中存在的可靠性低、成本高等问题,文章结合深井泵提取地下水进行供水的实际情况,提出了软启动控制柜+浮球开关+微电脑时间控制器改进的思路和方法,运用效果良好。  相似文献   
4.
Electroreduction of small molecules such as H2O, CO2, and N2 for producing clean fuels or valuable chemicals provides a sustainable approach to meet the increasing global energy demands and to alleviate the concern on climate change resulting from fossil fuel consumption. On the path to implement this purpose, however, several scientific hurdles remain, one of which is the low energy efficiency due to the sluggish kinetics of the paired oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In response, it is highly desirable to synthesize high-performance and cost-effective OER electrocatalysts. Recent advances have witnessed surface reconstruction engineering as a salient tool to significantly improve the catalytic performance of OER electrocatalysts. In this review, recent progress on the reconstructed OER electrocatalysts and future opportunities are discussed. A brief introduction of the fundamentals of OER and the experimental approaches for generating and characterizing the reconstructed active sites in OER nanocatalysts are given first, followed by an expanded discussion of recent advances on the reconstructed OER electrocatalysts with improved activities, with a particular emphasis on understanding the correlation between surface dynamics and activities. Finally, a prospect for clean future energy communities harnessing surface reconstruction-promoted electrochemical water oxidation will be provided.  相似文献   
5.
Nowadays, oil pollution has become more serious, which causes great threats both to the ecological environment and human life. In this study, a novel type of multifunctional deacetylated cellulose acetate/polyurethane (d-MCA:MTPU) composite nanofiber membranes for oil/water separation are successfully fabricated by electrospinning, which show super-amphiphilicity in air, super-hydrophilicity in oil, and oleophobicity in water. All the d-MCA:MTPU composite nanofiber membranes with different mass ratios can be used as water-removing, oil-removing, and emulsion separation substance only by gravity driving force. The highest separation flux for water and oil reaches up to 37 000 and 74 000 L m−2 h−1, respectively, and all the separation efficiencies are more than 99%. They have outstanding comprehensive mechanics performance, which can be controlled by simply adjusting the mass ratios. They show excellent antifouling and self-cleaning ability, endowing powerful cyclic stability and reusability. Those results show that d-MCA:MTPU composite nanofiber membranes have great application prospects in oil/water separation.  相似文献   
6.
凌庄子水厂蓄水池进水口处有一保水堰,为非标准薄壁堰,不能使用已有堰流公式对其过流量进行准确计算。为了得出较为精确的过流流量,按照重力相似准则制作几何比尺为1∶5的模型进行试验研究。在已有自由出流公式的基础上,对自由出流流量系数进行修正并对淹没情况下流量变化过程进行研究。对该非标准堰自由出流流量系数的实测值与经验值进行分析比较,发现堰板槽降低了实际自由出流过流能力。淹没出流的流量系数主要与下游尾水位有关,试验中形成的淹没式堰流受实际堰型尺寸影响,下游尾水位和堰上水位近似相等,不完全适用已有淹没出流流量公式,通过试验给出了修正淹没系数随h/p的变化关系。结果表明利用堰前、堰后水位初步计算过流流量是可行的,可为该工程提供参考,也可为实际工程中非标准矩形堰的流量计算提供思路。  相似文献   
7.
张鸿鹏 《全面腐蚀控制》2021,(3):110-111,122
给水管道在使用过程中很容易受到人为外力、管道材质、地下水、周围空气、土壤等因素的影响而腐蚀,影响了管道的使用质量和寿命,也带来较大的安全隐患。本文主要是从给水管道腐蚀原因出发,并探讨防护措施。  相似文献   
8.
针对致密砂岩油藏大规模体积压裂开发后能量补充困难的问题,利用自主设计制作的大型人造三维岩心物理模型和物理模拟实验舱,开展致密砂岩油藏能量补充方式优化研究。实验结果表明:致密砂岩油藏压裂开发过程中,地层能量损耗严重,采取注水或注气的方式可有效进行能量补充;地层中裂缝规模越大,越有利于原油渗流,后续补充能量的传播范围越广,有助于进一步提高原油采收率;从提高驱油效率和扩大波及系数方面优选吞吐渗吸介质,CO2均优于活性水,CO2吞吐开发在矿场试验中取得了显著的增油效果,因此,CO2吞吐作为一种有效的能量补充方式在致密油开发中展现了良好的应用前景。该文分析了致密砂岩储层水平井压裂开发的渗流规律,优选出致密砂岩储层大规模压裂开发后最佳渗吸介质,可为致密砂岩油藏开发设计提供重要的理论依据。  相似文献   
9.
This paper proposes a parameter adjustable dynamic mass and energy balance simulation model for an industrial alkaline water electrolyzer plant that enables cost and energy efficiency optimization by means of system dimensioning and control. Thus, the simulation model is based on mathematical models and white box coding, and it uses a practicable number of fixed parameters. Zero-dimensional energy and mass balances of each unit operation of a 3 MW, and 16 bar plant process were solved in MATLAB functions connected via a Simulink environment. Verification of the model was accomplished using an analogous industrial plant of the same power and pressure range having the same operational systems design. The electrochemical, mass flow and thermal behavior of the simulation and the industrial plant were compared to ascertain the accuracy of the model and to enable modification and detailed representation of real case scenarios so that the model is suitable for use in future plant optimization studies. The thermal model dynamically predicted the real case with 98.7 % accuracy. Shunt currents were the main contributor to relative low Faraday efficiency of 86 % at nominal load and steady-state operation and heat loss to ambient from stack was only 2.6 % of the total power loss.  相似文献   
10.
In this study, lignin was gasified in supercritical water with catalysis of CuO–ZnO synthesized by deposition precipitation, co-precipitation and sol-gel methods. Sol-gel synthesized CuO–ZnO showed the highest catalytic performance, and the gasification efficiency was increased by 37.92% with it. The XRD, SEM-EDS and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis showed that the priority of the sol-gel catalyst was the smallest crystallite size, largest specific surface area and high dispersion. For sol-gel synthesized CuO–ZnO, the increase of CuO/ZnO ratio improved the gasification efficiency but reduced H2 selectivity. And the catalytic activity was reduced with the calcination temperature above 600 °C due to enlarged crystallites and reduced pores. During sol-gel preparation, both the addition of ethanol and PEG in the solvent reduced the agglomeration and improved the catalytic activity. With CuO–ZnO prepared with 1 g PEG + water as the solvent, the highest H2 yield of 6.86 mol/kg was obtained, which was over 1.5 times of that without catalyst.  相似文献   
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