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The activity of catalysts with various sizes was compared in a fixed-bed Fischer–Tropsch reactor under similar operating conditions by determining the deactivation model. Catalyst size had no impact on the type of deactivation model. The smaller catalyst showed a smaller deactivation constant of catalyst (kd) and a lower deactivation rate in the initial stage. The decline in the activities of the catalyst with a mesh size of 40 was lower than the other catalysts, suggesting its higher long-term stability (ass). Larger catalyst sizes led to the fouling of carbon and heavy hydrocarbons, decreasing the specific surface of the catalyst, thus increasing the pore diffusion resistance and further decrementing the catalyst activities.  相似文献   
3.
We report the study of conductive polyaniline (PANI) chain embedded Ti-MOF functionalized with CoS as a cocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) application. The post synthetically modified hybrid photocatalyst PANI/Ti-MOF/CoS greatly influences the redox and e? ? h+ separation process and exhibits an impressive rate of HER (~1322 μmol h?1g?1), suppressing the pristine Ti-MOF (~62 μmol h?1g?1) with apparent quantum yield (AQY) of ~3.2 and transient current response of ~46.4 μA cm?2. In this system, Ti-MOF provides the circulation of Ti3+ and Ti4+ to the reaction of photocatalytic H2 generation, where the additional PANI and CoS amended the performance of H2 production through electron enrichment and thereby improving the stability and integrity of Ti-MOF. The Electrochemical studies demonstrated increased photocurrent by interweaving Ti-MOF crystal with PANI through cation-π interaction thereby enhancing interface connection and then promoting electron transfers. The charge dynamics revealed the initial charge transfer from photoexcited PANI to encapsulated MOF framework to boost the photocatalytic performance of the system. Further, the electron movement at the Ti-MOF/CoS interface is investigated through work function and electrochemical potential of electrons (Fermi level). DFT results demonstrate the importance of CoS in improving the photocatalytic performance of hybrid Ti-MOF catalyst, which leads to superior catalytic behaviour. These results establish that the encapsulation of catalytic active sites inside MOFs with desirable energy band gaps would be an ideal choice for the production of solar fuels.  相似文献   
4.
以智能反射面(intelligent reflecting surface,IRS)辅助的无线携能通信(simultaneous wireless information and power transfer,SWIPT)系统为背景,研究了该系统中基于能效优先的多天线发送端有源波束成形与IRS无源波束成形联合设计与优化方法。以最大化接收端的最小能效为优化目标,构造在发送端功率、接收端能量阈值、IRS相移等多约束下的非线性优化问题,用交替方向乘子法(alternating direction method of multipliers,ADMM)求解。采用Dinkelbach算法转化目标函数,通过奇异值分解(singular value decomposition,SVD)和半定松弛(semi-definite relaxation,SDR)得到发送端有源波束成形向量。采用SDR得到IRS相移矩阵与反射波束成形向量。结果表明,该系统显著降低了系统能量收集(energy harvesting,EH)接收端的能量阈值。当系统总电路功耗为?15 dBm时,所提方案的用户能效为300 KB/J。当IRS反射阵源数与发送天线数均为最大值时,系统可达最大能效。  相似文献   
5.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(9):12281-12290
Following the rapid growth of lightning technology, the development of red-emitting phosphors is effective for improving color temperature and color rendering index for w-LEDs devices. Herein, a single phased garnet phosphor with cation and polyhedron substitution modification was firstly prepared. For Mg3Gd2Ge3O12: Bi3+, Eu3+, the intensity has been remarkably improved by about 16% compared to the one without Bi3+ sensitization. The energy transfer mechanism is identified in this work. Based on cation and polyhedron substitution strategies, novel phosphors with different compositions were obtained and further modified the PL properties. With Lu3+ substitution, the bond lengths between Bi3+ ion and anion ligands are decreased and the site symmetry has been strengthened, which leads to a 21 nm blue shift when Lu3+ totally replaced Gd3+ ions. In addition, Lu3+ and [SiO4] substitution strategies both effectively increased symmetric rigid structure, which leads to a significant improvement in thermal stability, indicating the samples own great potential in optical applications This work provides a new insight to synthesis red-emitting phosphors for warm white-LEDs.  相似文献   
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Developing high-performance visible-to-UV photon upconversion systems based on triplet–triplet annihilation photon upconversion (TTA-UC) is highly desired, as it provides a potential approach for UV light-induced photosynthesis and photocatalysis. However, the quantum yield and spectral range of visible-to-UV TTA-UC based on nanocrystals (NCs) are still far from satisfactory. Here, three different sized CdS NCs are systematically investigated with triplet energy transfer to four mediators and four annihilators, thus substantially expanding the available materials for visible-to-UV TTA-UC. By improving the quality of CdS NCs, introducing the mediator via a direct mixing fashion, and matching the energy levels, a high TTA-UC quantum yield of 10.4% (out of a 50% maximum) is achieved in one case, which represents a record performance in TTA-UC based on NCs without doping. In another case, TTA-UC photons approaching 4 eV are observed, which is on par with the highest energies observed in optimized organic systems. Importantly, the in-depth investigation reveals that the direct mixing approach to introduce the mediator is a key factor that leads to close to unity efficiencies of triplet energy transfer, which ultimately governs the performance of NC-based TTA-UC systems. These findings provide guidelines for the design of high-performance TTA-UC systems toward solar energy harvesting.  相似文献   
8.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(5):4314-4323
We tested the hypothesis that the size of a beef cattle population destined for use on dairy females is smaller under optimum-contribution selection (OCS) than under truncation selection (TRS) at the same genetic gain (ΔG) and the same rate of inbreeding (ΔF). We used stochastic simulation to estimate true ΔG realized at a 0.005 ΔF in breeding schemes with OCS or TRS. The schemes for the beef cattle population also differed in the number of purebred offspring per dam and the total number of purebred offspring per generation. Dams of the next generation were exclusively selected among the one-year-old heifers. All dams were donors for embryo transfer and produced a maximum of 5 or 10 offspring. The total number of purebred offspring per generation was: 400, 800, 1,600 or 4,000 calves, and it was used as a measure of population size. Rate of inbreeding was predicted and controlled using pedigree relationships. Each OCS (TRS) scheme was simulated for 10 discrete generations and replicated 100 (200) times. The OCS scheme and the TRS scheme with a maximum of 10 offspring per dam required approximately 783 and 1,257 purebred offspring per generation to realize a true ΔG of €14 and a ΔF of 0.005 per generation. Schemes with a maximum of 5 offspring per dam required more purebred offspring per generation to realize a similar true ΔG and a similar ΔF. Our results show that OCS and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer act on selection intensity through different mechanisms to achieve fewer selection candidates and fewer selected sires and dams than under TRS at the same ΔG and a fixed ΔF. Therefore, we advocate the use of a breeding scheme with OCS and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer for beef cattle destined for use on dairy females because it is favorable both from an economic perspective and a carbon footprint perspective.  相似文献   
9.
Neoantigen vaccines and adoptive dendritic cell (DC) transfer are major clinical approaches to initiate personalized immunity in cancer patients. However, the immunization efficacy is largely limited by the in vivo trajectory including neoantigens’ access to resident DCs and DCs’ access to lymph nodes (LNs). Herein, an innovative strategy is proposed to improve personalized immunization through neoantigen-loaded nanovaccines synergized with adoptive DC transfer. It is found that it enables selective delivery of neoantigens to resident DCs and macrophages by coating cancer cell membranes onto neoantigen-loaded nanoparticles. In addition, the nanovaccines promote the secretion of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL3, and C-X-C motif ligand 10 from macrophages, thus potentiating the access of transferred DCs to LNs. This immunization strategy enables coordinated delivery of identified neoantigens and autologous tumor lysate-derived undefined antigens, leading to initiation of antitumor T cell immunity in a personalized manner. It significantly inhibits tumor growth in prophylactic and established mouse tumor models. The findings provide a new vision for potentiating adoptive cell transfer by nanovaccines, which may open the door to a transformative possibility for improving personalized immunization.  相似文献   
10.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(13):18793-18802
The luminescence center energy transfer, crystal field strength, and covalency are limited by the crystal structure of the host and subsequently affect the luminescence efficiency, color, and intensity. Here, we report an excellent red phosphor BaLaLiWO6:0.40Eu3+ and the dependence between symmetry and luminous performance. A model for changing symmetry is drawn by analyzing the Coulomb potential and structure for the application of a double-perovskite phosphor BLLWO: Dy3+, Eu3+ in white light LEDs. The addition of Dy3+/Eu3+ makes the W-O bond formed by the B-site and oxygen ion longer and the Li-O bond shorter, and the difference between the eight octahedral around the A-site is reduced, increasing the symmetry of the A-site. Local symmetry was successfully modulated by changing the Eu3+ concentration to control the Y/B ratio of Dy3+ and the R/O ratio of Eu3+ and smoothly achieved (0.382, 0.373) warm white light color coordinate. The phosphor has excellent thermal stability and still has 92.3% intensity at 475 K. The above results show that the wavelength composition of the luminescence is tunable by changing the symmetry of the environment in which the doped ions are located. It applies to single hosts for the regulation of white light emission.  相似文献   
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