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1.
The current trends in energy were described, the main of which is the use of alternative energy sources, especially hydrogen. The most common methods of hydrogen accumulation were proposed: accumulation of compressed gaseous hydrogen in high-pressure tanks; accumulation of liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks; storing hydrogen in a chemically bound state; accumulation of gaseous hydrogen in carriers with a high specific surface area. Based on the combination of advantages and disadvantages, the most promising methods of accumulation were selected: storage of liquid hydrogen and storage of hydrogen in carriers with a high specific surface area. The main requirement for materials for hydrogen storage by these methods was revealed – a high specific surface area. Prospects for the development of waste-free low-emission technologies due to the recycling of secondary raw materials and the development of low-temperature technologies for the synthesis of functional and structural materials were substantiated. The applicability of large-scale ash and slag waste from coal-fired thermal power plants as a raw material for obtaining materials by low-temperature technologies was shown. The traditional ways of using ash and slag waste as a raw material, active additive and filler in the production of cements were described. Modern technologies for the production of innovative materials with a unique set of properties were presented, namely carbon nanotubes, silica aerogel and geopolymer materials. The prospect of using geopolymer matrices as a precursor for the synthesis of a number of materials was described; the most promising type of materials was selected – geopolymer foams, which are mainly used as sorbents for purifying liquids and gases or accumulating target products, as well as heat-insulating materials. The possibility of obtaining products of any shape and size on the basis of geopolymer matrices without high-temperature processing was shown. The special efficiency of the development of the technology of porous granules and powders obtained from a geopolymer precursor using various methods was substantiated. The obtained granules can be used in the following hydrogen storage technologies: direct accumulation of hydrogen in porous granules; creation of insulating layers for liquid hydrogen storage units.  相似文献   
2.
学习不仅仅是自然科学知识的学习,更是社会科学、民族文化、正确人生观和价值观的形成过程,“课程思政”无疑正是实现该目标的捷径,它是当前高等院校思想政治教育的新模式。如何提升学生解决“复杂工程问题”的能力成为高校开展工程教育和“新工科”的难点和重点,而课程思政正是培养学生解决“复杂工程问题”中所需要的非技术因素的重要途径。“自动控制系统工程设计”是自动化专业高年级学生的一门专业课,当前关于“课程思政”的论述是指导思想居多、实施经验以及案例设计较少,针对该问题以“自动控制系统工程设计”为例,详细给出了“课程思政”教学案例的具体实施过程,对同类课程提供参考。  相似文献   
3.
In the last few decades, global warming, environmental pollution, and an energy shortage of fossil fuel may cause a severe economic crisis and health threats. Storage, conversion, and application of regenerable and dispersive energy would be a promising solution to release this crisis. The development of porous carbon materials from regenerated biomass are competent methods to store energy with high performance and limited environmental damages. In this regard, bio-carbon with abundant surface functional groups and an easily tunable three-dimensional porous structure may be a potential candidate as a sustainable and green carbon material. Up to now, although some literature has screened the biomass source, reaction temperature, and activator dosage during thermochemical synthesis, a comprehensive evaluation and a detailed discussion of the relationship between raw materials, preparation methods, and the structural and chemical properties of carbon materials are still lacking. Hence, in this review, we first assess the recent advancements in carbonization and activation process of biomass with different compositions and the activity performance in various energy storage applications including supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and hydrogen storage, highlighting the mechanisms and open questions in current energy society. After that, the connections between preparation methods and porous carbon properties including specific surface area, pore volume, and surface chemistry are reviewed in detail. Importantly, we discuss the relationship between the pore structure of prepared porous carbon with surface functional groups, and the energy storage performance in various energy storage fields for different biomass sources and thermal conversion methods. Finally, the conclusion and prospective are concluded to give an outlook for the development of biomass carbon materials, and energy storage applications technologies. This review demonstrates significant potentials for energy applications of biomass materials, and it is expected to inspire new discoveries to promote practical applications of biomass materials in more energy storage and conversion fields.  相似文献   
4.
Polymer electrets have revealed great potential application in electromechanical devices because of the low weight, large quasi-piezoelectric sensitivity, and excellent flexibility. For an electret, a permanent and macroscopic electric field exists on the surface, principally led by a macroscopic electrostatic charge on the surface or a net orientation of polar groups inside the object. Here, progress in the development of polymer electrets is reviewed. After a brief retrospect of the research courses and those typical polymer electrets that are classified into fluorine polymer and nonfluorine polymer, we present a survey on the charging methods, including corona, soft X-ray, contact, thermal and monoenergetic particle beams. The latest representative applications (i.e., power harvesting, sensors, field effect transistors, and biomedicine) based on polymer electrets are also summarized. Finally, we complete this review with a discussion on perspectives and challenges in this field.  相似文献   
5.
以“创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享”为内核的新发展理念,是对马克思主义发展理念的继承和发扬,极具时代精神,富含问题意识,为高校思想政治教育发展、教育教学改革实践提供了强大的理论支撑。本文以“通信原理”为例,阐述了新发展理念在课程改革中的思路和方法,实现了思想政治教育与专业基础课程有机融合,为深化高校教学改革、创新人才培养模式提供了思路。  相似文献   
6.
以智能反射面(intelligent reflecting surface,IRS)辅助的无线携能通信(simultaneous wireless information and power transfer,SWIPT)系统为背景,研究了该系统中基于能效优先的多天线发送端有源波束成形与IRS无源波束成形联合设计与优化方法。以最大化接收端的最小能效为优化目标,构造在发送端功率、接收端能量阈值、IRS相移等多约束下的非线性优化问题,用交替方向乘子法(alternating direction method of multipliers,ADMM)求解。采用Dinkelbach算法转化目标函数,通过奇异值分解(singular value decomposition,SVD)和半定松弛(semi-definite relaxation,SDR)得到发送端有源波束成形向量。采用SDR得到IRS相移矩阵与反射波束成形向量。结果表明,该系统显著降低了系统能量收集(energy harvesting,EH)接收端的能量阈值。当系统总电路功耗为?15 dBm时,所提方案的用户能效为300 KB/J。当IRS反射阵源数与发送天线数均为最大值时,系统可达最大能效。  相似文献   
7.
Cathode channel of a PEM fuel cell is the critical domain for the transport of water and heat. In this study, a mathematical model of water and heat transport in the cathode channel is established by considering two-phase flow of water and air as well as the phase change between water and vapor. The transport process of the species of air is governed by the convection-diffusion equation. The VOSET (coupled volume-of-fluid and level set method) method is used to track the interface between air and water, and the phase equilibrium method of water and vapor is employed to calculate the mass transfer rate on the two-phase interface. The present model is validated against the results in the literature, then applied to investigate the characteristics of two-phase flow and heat transfer in the cathode channel. The results indicate that in the inlet section, water droplets experience three evolution stages: the growing stage, the coalescence stage and the generation stage of dispersed water drops. However, in the middle and outlet sections of the channel, there are only two stages: the growth of water droplets, and the formation of a water film. The mass transfer rate of phase change in the inlet section of the channel varies over time, exhibiting an initial increase, a decrease followed, and a stabilization finally, with the maximum and stable values of 1.78 × 10?4 kg/s and 1.52 × 10?4 kg/s for Part 1, respectively. In the middle and outlet sections, the mass transfer rate increase firstly and then keeps stable gradually. Furthermore, regarding the distribution of the temperature and vapor mass fraction in the channel, near the upper surface of the channel, the temperature and vapor mass fraction first change slightly (x < 0.03 m) and then rapidly decrease with fluctuations (x > 0.03 m). In the middle of the channel, the temperature and vapor mass fraction slowly decrease with fluctuation.  相似文献   
8.
现代战场中的无线通信设备日益增多,精准获取个体信息已成为研究热点,但也是难点。针对通信电台,提出了一种分选识别技术。该技术从电台物理层特性出发,对其辐射信号的细微特征进行K-means聚类以实现分选,分选的同时提取各个个体的特征属性值,未知信号通过与特征属性值相关运算实现个体识别。该技术无需先验知识,无需训练运算,通过实验验证,其可行、高效,易于工程实现。  相似文献   
9.
This study presents the development and characterization of PVDF-conjugated polymer nanofiber-based systems. Five different conducting polymers (CPs) were synthesized successfully and used to create the nanofiber systems. The CPs used are polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPY), polyindole (PIN), polyanthranilic acid (PANA), and polycarbazole (PCZ). Nanofiber systems were produced utilizing the Forcespinning® technique. The nanofiber systems were developed by mechanical stretching. No electrical field or post-process poling was used in the nanofiber systems. The morphology, structure, electrochemical and piezoelectric performance was characterized. All of the nanofiber PVDF/CP systems displayed higher piezoelectric performance than the fine fiber PVDF systems. The PVDF/PPY nanofiber system displays the highest piezoelectric performance of 15.56 V. The piezoelectric performance of the PVDF/CP nanofiber systems favors potential for an attractive source of energy where highly flexible membranes could be used in power actuators, sensors and portable, and wireless devices to mention some.  相似文献   
10.
Shape memory materials (SMMs) in 3D printing (3DP) technology garnered much attention due to their ability to respond to external stimuli, which direct this technology toward an emerging area of research, “4D printing (4DP) technology.” In contrast to classical 3D printed objects, the fourth dimension, time, allows printed objects to undergo significant changes in shape, size, or color when subjected to external stimuli. Highly precise and calibrated 4D materials, which can perform together to achieve robust 4D objects, are in great demand in various fields such as military applications, space suits, robotic systems, apparel, healthcare, sports, etc. This review, for the first time, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, focuses on recent advances in SMMs (e.g., polymers, metals, etc.) based wearable smart textiles and fashion goods. This review integrates the basic overview of 3DP technology, fabrication methods, the transition of 3DP to 4DP, the chemistry behind the fundamental working principles of 4D printed objects, materials selection for smart textiles and fashion goods. The central part summarizes the effect of major external stimuli on 4D textile materials followed by the major applications. Lastly, prospects and challenges are discussed, so that future researchers can continue the progress of this technology.  相似文献   
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