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1.
Metals that are exposed to high pressure hydrogen gas may undergo detrimental failure by embrittlement. Understanding the mechanisms and driving forces of hydrogen absorption on the surface of metals is crucial for avoiding hydrogen embrittlement. In this study, the effect of stress-enhanced gaseous hydrogen uptake in bulk metals is investigated in detail. For that purpose, a generalized form of Sievert's law is derived from thermodynamic potentials considering the effect of microstructural trapping sites and multiaxial stresses. This new equation is parametrized and verified using experimental data for carbon steels, which were charged under gaseous hydrogen atmosphere at pressures up to 1000 bar. The role of microstructural trapping sites on the parameter identification is critically discussed. Finally, the parametrized equation is applied to calculate the stress-enhanced hydrogen solubility of thin-walled pipelines and thick-walled pressure vessels during service.  相似文献   
2.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(8):10613-10619
Alumina ceramics with different unit numbers and gradient modes were prepared by digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing technology. The side length of each functional gradient structure was 10 mm, the porosity ratio was controlled to 70%, and the number of units were (1 × 1 × 1 unit) and (2 × 2 × 2 unit) respectively. The different gradient modes were named FCC, GFCC-1, GFCC-2 and GFCC-3. SEM, XRD, and other characterization methods proved that these gradient structures of alumina ceramics had only α-Al2O3 phase and good surface morphology. The mechanical properties and energy absorption properties of alumina ceramics with different functional gradient structures were studied by compression test. The results show that the gradient structure with 1 × 1 × 1 unit has better mechanical properties and energy absorption properties when the number of units is different. When the number of units is the same, GFCC-2 and GFCC-3 gradient structures have better compressive performance and energy absorption potential than FCC structures. The GFCC-2 gradient structure with 1 × 1 × 1 unit has a maximum compressive strength of 19.62 MPa and a maximum energy absorption value of 2.72 × 105 J/m3. The good performance of such functional gradient structures can provide new ideas for the design of lightweight and compressive energy absorption structures in the future.  相似文献   
3.
黄长国 《煤炭工程》2020,52(4):92-97
针对煤矿井下高瓦斯软煤顺层长钻孔排渣困难、成孔率低、施工困难等问题,通过数值模拟实验研究了井下深部软煤体变形破坏特征,分析了顺层长钻孔孔周松软煤体变形特征及应力变化,以揭示顺层长钻孔孔周松软煤体变形产渣规律。研究表明:深部高瓦斯软煤顺层钻孔孔周煤体的应力平衡临界条件破坏后将发生大体积突然垮落;钻孔水平最大变形位移为1.22mm,垂直方向最大变形位移为10.7mm;径向孔周煤体垂向变形呈现逐渐减小趋势,且垂向变形明显大于钻孔水平变形。在水平方向上,钻孔孔周煤体应力分布呈现先增大再逐渐减小的变化规律,径向距离对水平应力分布的影响逐渐减小;随着径向距离的增加,钻孔孔周煤体应力分布逐渐降低,钻孔孔壁处煤体的应力出现最大值,且垂直方向处应力值最大。  相似文献   
4.
轮对在列车走行过程中起着导向、承受以及传递载荷的作用,其踏面及轮缘磨耗对地铁列车运行安全性和钢轨的寿命都将产生重要影响。根据地铁列车车轮磨耗机理,分析车轮尺寸数据特点,针对轮缘厚度这一型面参数,基于梯度提升决策树算法构建轮缘厚度磨耗预测模型。在该模型的基础上,任意选取某轮对数据进行验证分析,结果表明:基于梯度提升决策树的轮对磨耗预测模型具有较好的预测精度,可预测出1~6个月的轮缘厚度变化趋势范围,预测时间范围较长,可为地铁维保部门对轮对的维修方式由状态修转为预防修提供指导性建议。  相似文献   
5.
Solubility is one of the most indispensable physicochemical properties determining the compatibility of components of a blending system. Research has been focused on the solubility of carbon dioxide in polymers as a significant application of green chemistry. To replace costly and time-consuming experiments, a novel solubility prediction model based on a decision tree, called the stochastic gradient boosting algorithm, was proposed to predict CO2 solubility in 13 different polymers, based on 515 published experimental data lines. The results indicate that the proposed ensemble model is an effective method for predicting the CO2 solubility in various polymers, with highly satisfactory performance and high efficiency. It produces more accurate outputs than other methods such as machine learning schemes and an equation of state approach.  相似文献   
6.
The identification of the Hammerstein–Wiener (H-W) systems based on the nonuniform input–output dataset remains a challenging problem. This article studies the identification problem of a periodically nonuniformly sampled-data H-W system. In addition, the product terms of the parameters in the H-W system are inevitable. In order to solve the problem, the key-term separation is applied and two algorithms are proposed. One is the key-term-based forgetting factor stochastic gradient (KT-FFSG) algorithm based on the gradient search. The other is the key-term-based hierarchical forgetting factor stochastic gradient (KT-HFFSG) algorithm. Compared with the KT-FFSG algorithm, the KT-HFFSG algorithm gives more accurate estimates. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithms are effective.  相似文献   
7.
8.
双语词嵌入通常采用从源语言空间到目标语言空间映射,通过源语言映射嵌入到目标语言空间的最小距离线性变换实现跨语言词嵌入。然而大型的平行语料难以获得,词嵌入的准确率难以提高。针对语料数量不对等、双语语料稀缺情况下的跨语言词嵌入问题,该文提出一种基于小字典不对等语料的跨语言词嵌入方法,首先对单语词向量进行归一化,对小字典词对正交最优线性变换求得梯度下降初始值,然后通过对大型源语言(英语)语料进行聚类,借助小字典找到与每一聚类簇相对应的源语言词,取聚类得到的每一簇词向量均值和源语言与目标语言对应的词向量均值,建立新的双语词向量对应关系,将新建立的双语词向量扩展到小字典中,使得小字典得以泛化和扩展。最后,利用泛化扩展后的字典对跨语言词嵌入映射模型进行梯度下降求得最优值。在英语—意大利语、德语和芬兰语上进行了实验验证,实验结果证明该文方法可以在跨语言词嵌入中减少梯度下降迭代次数,减少训练时间,同时在跨语言词嵌入上表现出较好的正确率。  相似文献   
9.
Producing a stable and agile bionic eye for visual image acquisition in robotics is a challenging task. In this paper, we design a bionic eye with mirror-symmetric distribution and cross-connection of flexible ropes. This mechanism is based on oculomotor law and the physiological structure of the extraocular muscles (EOMs). Specifically, the basic structural parameters are determined by Listing’s law, and the unique connection of the flexible ropes can realize the functions of the recti and oblique muscles. Furthermore, to mimic the trochlea structure, a pulley mechanism is constructed to permit the free movement of the flexible ropes. Through simulation and physical experiments, it is demonstrated that the bionic eye mechanism can move with agility under the structural parameters. The experimental results indicate that the proposed bionic eye mechanism has a superior motion accuracy of 2.798 mm, which is 6.7% of the maximum motion distance, and the repeatable accuracy of the mechanism can up to 0.210 mm.  相似文献   
10.
A simple and low‐cost method for designing and fabricating concentration‐gradient generators with two and three inlets is proposed which can generate different concentration gradients at varying flow velocities. The microchannel structure was designed in S‐shape and left‐right symmetry. The concentration‐gradient generator was simulated based on the finite element method. The microchannels were processed on a computer numerical control (CNC) engraving and milling machine on poly(methylmethacrylate) substrate, and then two concentration‐gradient generators were fabricated by hot bonding technology. The results of experiment and simulation were compared to prove the feasibility of the method. Flow velocity was an important factor for generating different concentration gradients. The concentration‐gradient profiles of the generators with two and three inlets present approximately linear and quadratic curves.  相似文献   
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