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1.
In this study, the separation of hydrogen from gas mixtures using a palladium membrane coupled with a vacuum environment on the permeate side was studied experimentally. The gas mixtures composed of H2, N2, and CO2 were used as the feed. Hydrogen permeation fluxes were measured with membrane operating temperature in the range of 320–380 °C, pressures on the retentate side in the range of 2–5 atm, and vacuum pressures on the permeate side in the range of 15–51 kPa. The Taguchi method was used to design the operating conditions for the experiments based on an orthogonal array. Using the measured H2 permeation fluxes from the Taguchi approach, the stepwise regression analysis was also employed for establishing the prediction models of H2 permeation flux, followed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the significance and suitability of operating conditions. Based on both the Taguchi approach and ANOVA, the H2 permeation flux was mostly affected by the gas mixture composition, followed by the retentate side pressure, the vacuum degree, and the membrane temperature. The predicted optimal operating conditions were the gas mixture with 75% H2 and 25% N2, the membrane temperature of 320 °C, the retentate side pressure of 5 atm, and the vacuum degree of 51 kPa. Under these conditions, the H2 permeation flux was 0.185 mol s?1 m?2. A second-order normalized regression model with a relative error of less than 7% was obtained based on the measured H2 permeation flux.  相似文献   
2.
寒区河道凌汛灾害河势“弯道效应”的量化评估十分重要。基于分形理论提出河道横断面-纵剖面-平面多维度河势分形维数计算方法及其物理机制,并探讨黄河内蒙古段不同维度河势演变分形特征及其与凌汛灾害的关联关系。结果表明,黄河内蒙古段不同维度河势均具有多尺度自相似分形特征,且具有多年记忆周期的长程相关性;冰坝(严重性冰塞)发生频次与河道主槽弯曲分形维数呈正相关指数型函数关系,与河相系数、深泓点高程和河段平均底坡分形维数负相关,与水深-面积分形维数正相关,总体表明冰坝灾害更易发生于主槽偏移摆动大、蜿蜒曲折、河湾发育程度高的宽浅型弯曲河道,研究成果可为凌汛期冰塞冰坝灾害易发河段诊断及预测提供重要理论依据。  相似文献   
3.
Gelatin is one of the most important multifunctional biopolymers and is widely used as an essential ingredient in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics. Porcine gelatin is regarded as the leading source of gelatin globally then followed by bovine gelatin. Porcine sources are favored over other sources since they are less expensive. However, porcine gelatin is religiously prohibited to be consumed by Muslims and the Jewish community. It is predicted that the global demand for gelatin will increase significantly in the future. Therefore, a sustainable source of gelatin with efficient production and free of disease transmission must be developed. The highest quality of Bovidae-based gelatin (BG) was acquired through alkaline pretreatment, which displayed excellent physicochemical and rheological properties. The utilization of mammalian- and plant-based enzyme significantly increased the gelatin yield. The emulsifying and foaming properties of BG also showed good stability when incorporated into food and pharmaceutical products. Manipulation of extraction conditions has enabled the development of custom-made gelatin with desired properties. This review highlighted the various modifications of extraction and processing methods to improve the physicochemical and functional properties of Bovidae-based gelatin. An in-depth analysis of the crucial stage of collagen breakdown is also discussed, which involved acid, alkaline, and enzyme pretreatment, respectively. In addition, the unique characteristics and primary qualities of BG including protein content, amphoteric property, gel strength, emulsifying and viscosity properties, and foaming ability were presented. Finally, the applications and prospects of BG as the preferred gelatin source globally were outlined.  相似文献   
4.
随着食品和膳食补充剂的市场变得越来越全球化,食品和膳食补充剂的安全性、质量和功效引起人们的高度关注。近年来,食品和膳食补充剂中被检测出兴奋剂阳性的事件屡见不鲜。运动员在误服误用被兴奋剂污染的食品和膳食补充剂后,会导致兴奋剂检测呈阳性,这对运动员和国家都造成了重大损失。由于摄入受污染的食品或膳食补充剂会导致严重的健康损害或意外违反反兴奋剂规定,因此准确了解食品和膳食补充剂中兴奋剂污染种类是十分有必要的。本文主要从食品和膳食补充剂中兴奋剂污染的来源和种类以及常用的检测方法等方面进行简要概述,以提高运动员对高风险食品的警惕和防范,避免因误服被兴奋剂污染的食品、膳食补充剂而导致的不良分析结果。  相似文献   
5.
Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as a layered inorganic nonmetallic material has been widely used. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) modification can trigger exfoliation and afford abundant B–OH active sites at edge of h-BN, which can enhance methane activation ability. Introducing tungsten oxide (WO3) to h-BN produces a similar effect, because doping WO3 into h-BN resulted in electron transfer to N, inducing fracture of B–N bond, resulting in N vacancy (triboron center), exposing more B sites and promoting the generation of B–OH. Significantly, the introduction of WO3 on the modified h-BN dramatically increased the concentration of B–OH compared with the unmodified h-BN, because H2O2 modification weakened B–N bond. By means of XRD, TEM, XPS,EPR, FT-IR, it is proved that the high concentration of B–OH active sites contributed to activating C–H bond, thus methane conversion and CO and H2 selectivity were significantly improved.  相似文献   
6.
This paper presents experiments performed at Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) to examine the dispersion behaviour of helium in a polycarbonate enclosure that was representative of a residential parking garage. The purpose was to gain a better understanding of the effect of buoyancy- or wind-driven natural ventilation on hydrogen dispersion behaviour. Although hydrogen dispersion studies have been reported extensively in the literature, gaps still exist in predictive methods for hazard analysis. Helium, a simulant for hydrogen, was injected near the centre of the floor with a flow rate ranging from 5 to 75 standard litres per minute through an upward-facing nozzle, resulting in an injection Richardson number ranging between 10?1 and 102. The location of the nozzle varied from the bottom of the enclosure to near the ceiling to examine the impact of the nozzle elevation on the development of a stratified layer in the upper region of the enclosure. When the injection nozzle was placed at a sufficiently low elevation, the vertical helium profile always consisted of a homogenous layer at the top overlaying a stratified layer at the bottom. To simulate outdoor environmental conditions, a fan was placed in front of each vent to examine the effect of opposing or assisting wind on the dispersion. The helium transients in the uniform layer predicted with analytical models were in good agreement with the measured transients for most tests. Model improvements are required for adequately predicting transients with primarily stratified profiles or strong opposing wind.  相似文献   
7.
Sweet pickled mango named Ma-Muang Bao Chae-Im is a traditional preserved mango from Hat Yai, Thailand. This study investigated (I) volatile and non-volatile compound profiles of commercial Ma-Muang Bao Chae-Im and (II) their relationship to consumer preference. Untargeted metabolomics profiling was performed by gas chromatography-mass quadrupole-time of flight analysis. There were 117 volatile and 44 non-volatile compounds annotated in six commercial brands of Ma-Muang Bao Chae-Im. Furthermore, 46 volatile and 19 non-volatile compounds’ discriminant markers were found by Partial least square discriminant analysis. Among those markers, sorbic and benzoic acid were observed in several brands; moreover, the combination of both compounds altered the volatile profile, especially the ester group. Partial least square regression revealed that overall consumer liking is correlated to 1-heptanol; 1-octanol; acetoin; acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester; D-manitol; terpenes and terpenoids, while firmness to sucrose and L-(-)-sorbofuranose. On the other hand, most ester compounds were not related to consumer preference.  相似文献   
8.
This paper investigates PID control design for a class of planar nonlinear uncertain systems in the presence of actuator saturation. Based on the bounds on the growth rates of the nonlinear uncertain function in the system model, the system is placed in a linear differential inclusion. Each vertex system of the linear differential inclusion is a linear system subject to actuator saturation. By placing the saturated PID control into a convex hull formed by the PID controller and an auxiliary linear feedback law, we establish conditions under which an ellipsoid is contractively invariant and hence is an estimate of the domain of attraction of the equilibrium point of the closed-loop system. The equilibrium point corresponds to the desired set point for the system output. Thus, the location of the equilibrium point and the size of the domain of attraction determine, respectively, the set point that the output can achieve and the range of initial conditions from which this set point can be reached. Based on these conditions, the feasible set points can be determined and the design of the PID control law that stabilizes the nonlinear uncertain system at a feasible set point with a large domain of attraction can then be formulated and solved as a constrained optimization problem with constraints in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Application of the proposed design to a magnetic suspension system illustrates the design process and the performance of the resulting PID control law.   相似文献   
9.
10.
死亡风险预测指根据病人临床体征监测数据来预测未来一段时间的死亡风险。对于ICU病患,通过死亡风险预测可以有针对性地对病人做出临床诊断,以及合理安排有限的医疗资源。基于临床使用的MEWS和Glasgow昏迷评分量表,针对ICU病人临床监测的17项生理参数,提出一种基于多通道的ICU脑血管疾病死亡风险预测模型。引入多通道概念应用于BiLSTM模型,用于突出每个生理参数对死亡风险预测的作用。采用Attention机制用于提高模型预测精度。实验数据来自MIMIC [Ⅲ]数据库,从中提取3?080位脑血管疾病患者的16?260条记录用于此次研究,除了六组超参数实验之外,将所提模型与LSTM、Multichannel-BiLSTM、逻辑回归(logistic regression)和支持向量机(support vector machine, SVM)四种模型进行了对比分析,准确率Accuracy、灵敏度Sensitive、特异性Specificity、AUC-ROC和AUC-PRC作为评价指标,实验结果表明,所提模型性能优于其他模型,AUC值达到94.3%。  相似文献   
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