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1.
Metals and alloys forming reversible hydrides with hydrogen gas are potential building blocks for compact, solid state hydrogen storage systems. Based on the materials’ thermodynamic characteristics, their use as temperature-swing gas compression and delivery systems in the hydrogen economy is also possible. Given the wide variety of materials developed and tested at laboratory and pilot scales, a harmonized method of selecting the feasible material(s) for a particular real-life application is required. This study proposes a system selection framework based on a normalized, multi-criteria metric. Using calculated values of multi-criteria metric, multi-criteria screening and ranking of potential materials has been demonstrated for a particular use case. It is found that the alloy TiMn1.52 having value of additive metric between 0.25 and 0.35 represents the best material for a single stage system. The alloy pair CaNi5–Ti1.5CrMn represents the best alternative for a two-stage system with additive metric values between 0.63 and 0.82. Energy and economic characteristics of the metal hydride gas compression and delivery systems are evaluated and compared with an equivalent mechanical compression system producing the same final effect (i.e., delivery of a given quantity of gas at a defined pressure).  相似文献   
2.
In this study, the separation of hydrogen from gas mixtures using a palladium membrane coupled with a vacuum environment on the permeate side was studied experimentally. The gas mixtures composed of H2, N2, and CO2 were used as the feed. Hydrogen permeation fluxes were measured with membrane operating temperature in the range of 320–380 °C, pressures on the retentate side in the range of 2–5 atm, and vacuum pressures on the permeate side in the range of 15–51 kPa. The Taguchi method was used to design the operating conditions for the experiments based on an orthogonal array. Using the measured H2 permeation fluxes from the Taguchi approach, the stepwise regression analysis was also employed for establishing the prediction models of H2 permeation flux, followed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the significance and suitability of operating conditions. Based on both the Taguchi approach and ANOVA, the H2 permeation flux was mostly affected by the gas mixture composition, followed by the retentate side pressure, the vacuum degree, and the membrane temperature. The predicted optimal operating conditions were the gas mixture with 75% H2 and 25% N2, the membrane temperature of 320 °C, the retentate side pressure of 5 atm, and the vacuum degree of 51 kPa. Under these conditions, the H2 permeation flux was 0.185 mol s?1 m?2. A second-order normalized regression model with a relative error of less than 7% was obtained based on the measured H2 permeation flux.  相似文献   
3.
The effect of microwave roasting parameters (300, 450 and 600 W; 5, 10 and 15 min) on acrylamide content in sorghum grain was determined using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-photo diode array (PDA) detector coupled with C-18 column. Samples roasted at 300 and 450 W did not possess acrylamide, whereas 600 W (15 min) favoured formation of 2740.19 µg/kg of acrylamide, levels far exceeding the defined European Union (EU) limits. The chronic daily intake (CDI) for acrylamide through consumption of such grain flour was 3.25–9.5-fold higher to Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) defined high exposure limits. The margin of exposure (MOE) values ranged from 4.3 to 12.76 and from 11.07 to 32.27 for neoplastic and neurological effects, respectively, demonstrating high exposure and serious health concerns associated with dietary intake of this toxicant. This study assesses the risk for the Indian population and highlights the importance of optimising process parameters for food product to minimise such exposure risks.  相似文献   
4.
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are considered an important technology in terms of high efficiency and clean energy generation. Flat-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (FT-SOFC) which is a combination of tubular and planar cell geometries stands out with its performance values and low costs. In this study, the performance of an FT-SOFC is analyzed numerically by using finite element method-based design as a result of changing parameters by using different fuels which are pure hydrogen and coal gas with various proportions of CO. In addition, cell performance values for different temperatures were analyzed and interpreted. Analyzes have been performed by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The rates of CO composition used are 10%, 20%, and 40%, respectively. In addition, the air was used as the oxidizer in all cases. The cell voltage and average cell power of the FT-SOFC were examined under the 800 °C operating condition. The maximum power value and current density value were obtained as 710 W/m2 and 1420 A/m2 for the flat-tubular cell, respectively. As a result of the study, it was observed that the maximum cell power densities increased with increasing temperature. Analysis results showed that FT-SOFCs have suitable properties for different fuel usage and different operating temperatures. High-performance values and design features in different operating conditions are expected to make FT-SOFC the focus of many studies in the future.  相似文献   
5.
针对颗粒滚动摩擦作用对筒仓中玉米颗粒的力链空间分布进行研究,通过EDEM离散元软件建立筒仓模型与仿真玉米颗粒模型进行卸粮仿真模拟,并与筒仓卸料实验作流态对比,验证模型与仿真结果的准确性。通过对模拟仓进行切片观察和数据处理,对比分析了不同摩擦情况下力链的细观参数随时间演化规律。模拟结果表明:颗粒间摩擦系数越大,卸粮完成的最终时间越长;颗粒间滚动摩擦系数越小,颗粒由整体流转变为管状流的时间越早。对于有漏斗的筒仓来说,减小颗粒间摩擦会改变整体流和管状流之间的极限,从而增加产生管状流的面积。标准滚动摩擦系数下玉米颗粒在卸料过程中会出现起拱-塌陷效应;减小滚动摩擦,玉米颗粒卸料较稳定,未出现起拱的应力突增、以及拱塌陷的应力衰减;增大颗粒间滚动摩擦不但会增加拱效应,且出现成拱高度距离漏斗口更高。  相似文献   
6.
在传统的轮胎表面缺陷依靠人工检测,存在劳动强度高、受人的主观影响大以及效率低下的问题。针对这一现象,研究了一种基于机器视觉的轮胎表面缺陷3D检测系统。该系统依靠机器视觉系统获取检测轮胎的表面图像,然后创建3D模型、判定缺陷类型,最终实现实时自动预警,为轮胎生产商提供一种自动化检测方案。系统集成了先进的技术、软件和工具,配套的信息管控系统可以对轮胎型号和生产数据进行采集、存储、分析,以便在生产过程中实现更高效、更可靠的质量控制,具有较高的实际应用推广价值。  相似文献   
7.
Manufacturing companies not only strive to deliver flawless products but also monitor product failures in the field to identify potential quality issues. When product failures occur, quality engineers must identify the root cause to improve any affected product and process. This root-cause analysis can be supported by feature selection methods that identify relevant product attributes, such as manufacturing dates with an increased number of product failures. In this paper, we present different methods for feature selection and evaluate their ability to identify relevant product attributes in a root-cause analysis. First, we compile a list of feature selection methods. Then, we summarize the properties of product attributes in warranty case data and discuss these properties regarding the challenges they pose for machine learning algorithms. Next, we simulate datasets of warranty cases, which emulate these product properties. Finally, we compare the feature selection methods based on these simulated datasets. In the end, the univariate filter information gain is determined to be a suitable method for a wide range of applications. The comparison based on simulated data provides a more general result than other publications, which only focus on a single use case. Due to the generic nature of the simulated datasets, the results can be applied to various root-cause analysis processes in different quality management applications and provide a guideline for readers who wish to explore machine learning methods for their analysis of quality data.  相似文献   
8.
Photocatalytic H2 generation using semiconductor photocatalysts is considered as a cost-effective and eco-friendly technology for solar to energy conversion; however, the present photocatalysts have been recognized to depict low efficiency. Currently, porous coordination polymers known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) constituting flexible and modifiable porous structure and having excess active sites are considered to be appropriate for photocatalytic H2 production. This review highlights current progress in structural development of MOF materials along with modification strategies for enhanced photoactivity. Initially, the review discusses the photocatalytic H2 production mechanism with the concepts of thermodynamics and mass transfer with particular focus on MOFs. Elaboration of the structural categories of MOFs into Type I, Type II, Type III and classification of MOFs for H2 generation into transition metal based, post-transition metal based, noble-metal based and hetero-metal based has been systematically discussed. The review also critically deliberate various modification approaches of band engineering, improvement of charge separation, efficient irradiation utilization and overall efficiency of MOFs including metal modification, heterojunction formation, Z-scheme formation, by introducing electron mediator, and dye based composites. Also, the MOF synthesized derivatives for photocatalytic H2 generation are elaborated. Finally, future perspectives of MOFs for H2 generation and approaches for efficiency improvement have been suggested.  相似文献   
9.
Relatively low efficiency is the biggest obstacle to the popularization of water electrolysis, which is a particularly feasible way to produce super-pure hydrogen. Imposing a magnetic field can increase the hydrogen production efficiency of water electrolysis. However, the enhancement's detailed mechanism still lacks an insightful understanding of the bubbles' micro vicinity. Our recent work aims to understand why the micro-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convection hinders single bubbles' detachment on the microelectrode. A water electrolysis experiment by microelectrode is performed under an electrode-normal magnetic field, and dynamic analysis of the single bubble growing on microelectrodes is performed. The variation of bubble diameter with time in the presence or absence of the magnetic field was measured, and the forces acting on the bubble were quantified. The result shows that the micro-MHD convection, induced by Lorentz force, can give rise to a downward hydrodynamic pressure force that will not appear in large-scale MHD convection. This force can be of the same magnitude as the surface tension, so it dramatically hinders bubbles' detachment. Besides, the Kelvin force provides a new potential way for further improving the efficiency of water electrolysis.  相似文献   
10.
Fire spread and growth on real‐scale four cushion mock‐ups of residential upholstered furniture (RUF) were investigated with the goal of identifying whether changes in five classes of materials (barrier, flexible polyurethane foam, polyester fiber wrap, upholstery fabric, and sewing thread), referred to as factors, resulted in statistically significant changes in burning behavior. A fractional factorial experimental design plus practical considerations yielded a test matrix with 20 material combinations. Experiments were repeated a minimum of two times. Measurements included fire spread rates derived from video recordings and heat release rates (HRRs). A total of 13 experimental parameters (3 based on the videos and 10 on the HRR results), referred to as responses, characterized the measurements. Statistical analyses based on Main Effects Plots (main effects) and Block Plots (main effects and factor interactions) were used. The results showed that three of the factors resulted in statistically significant effects on varying numbers of the 13 responses. The Barrier and Fabric factors had the strongest main effects with roughly comparable magnitudes. Foam was statistically significant for fewer of the responses and its overall strength was weaker than for Barrier and Fabric. No statistically significant main effects were identified for Wrap or Thread. Multiple two‐term interactions between factors were identified as being statistically significant. The Barrier*Fabric interaction resulted in the highest number of and strongest statistically significant effects. The existence of two‐term interactions means that it will be necessary to consider their effects in approaches designed to predict the burning behavior of RUF.  相似文献   
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