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1.
自动程序修复方法研究进展   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
自动程序修复帮助开发者降低人工修复bug的成本.基于测试集的修复方法旨在生成能够通过测试集的代码补丁,以使程序正常运行.回顾了基于测试集的程序修复的现有文献,按照自动修复方法和实证基础两个方面陈述了研究进展.首先,将已有的自动修复方法划分为3类,分别是基于搜索的、基于代码穷举的和基于约束求解的补丁生成方法;其次,细致地描述了程序修复的实证研究基础以及该研究领域中的争议;然后,简要介绍了程序修复的相关技术作为修复方法的补充;最后做出总结,描述了面临的机遇和挑战.  相似文献
2.
Search-based refactoring for software maintenance   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The high cost of software maintenance could be reduced by automatically improving the design of object-oriented programs without altering their behaviour. We have constructed a software tool capable of refactoring object-oriented programs to conform more closely to a given design quality model, by formulating the task as a search problem in the space of alternative designs. This novel approach is validated by two case studies, where programs are automatically refactored to increase flexibility, reusability and understandability as defined by a contemporary quality model. Both local and simulated annealing searches were found to be effective in this task.  相似文献
3.
Search based software testing of object-oriented containers   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Automatic software testing tools are still far from ideal for real world object-oriented (OO) software. The use of nature inspired search algorithms for this problem has been investigated recently. Testing complex data structures (e.g., containers) is very challenging since testing software with simple states is already hard. Because containers are used in almost every type of software, their reliability is of utmost importance. Hence, this paper focuses on the difficulties of testing container classes with nature inspired search algorithms. We will first describe how input data can be automatically generated for testing Java containers. Input space reductions and a novel testability transformation are presented to aid the search algorithms. Different search algorithms are then considered and studied in order to understand when and why a search algorithm is effective for a testing problem. In our experiments, these nature inspired search algorithms seem to give better results than the traditional techniques described in literature. Besides, the problem of minimising the length of the test sequences is also addressed. Finally, some open research questions are given.  相似文献
4.
一种基于遗传算法的多缺陷定位方法   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
王赞  樊向宇  邹雨果  陈翔 《软件学报》2016,27(4):879-900
基于程序频谱的缺陷定位方法可以有效地辅助开发人员定位软件内部缺陷,但大部分已有自动化方法在解决多缺陷定位问题时表现不佳,部分效果尚可的方法因复杂度较高或需要开发人员较多交互而仍需进一步改善.为改善上述问题,提出一种基于遗传算法的多缺陷定位方法 GAMFal,具体来说:首先基于搜索的软件工程思想对多缺陷定位问题进行建模,构建了候选缺陷分布的染色体编码方式,并基于扩展的Ochiai系数计算个体的适应度值;随后使用遗传算法在解空间中搜索具有最高适应度值的候选缺陷分布,在终止条件被满足后返回最优解种群;最后根据这个种群对程序实体进行排序.这样开发人员可以依次对程序实体进行检查并最终确定多个缺陷的具体位置.实证研究以Siemens套件中的7个程序和Linux的3个程序(gzip、grep和sed)作为评测对象,并扩展传统的定位方法评测标准EXAM至EXAMF和EXAML,通过与其他经典的缺陷定位方法(Tarantula、Improved Tarantula及Ochiai)进行对比,并通过Friedman检测和最小显著性差异测试可得,提出的GAMFal方法在整体定位效率方面优于传统方法,且需要更少的人工交互.除此之外,GAMFal的执行时间也在可接受的范围之内.  相似文献
5.

Context

Assessing software quality at the early stages of the design and development process is very difficult since most of the software quality characteristics are not directly measurable. Nonetheless, they can be derived from other measurable attributes. For this purpose, software quality prediction models have been extensively used. However, building accurate prediction models is hard due to the lack of data in the domain of software engineering. As a result, the prediction models built on one data set show a significant deterioration of their accuracy when they are used to classify new, unseen data.

Objective

The objective of this paper is to present an approach that optimizes the accuracy of software quality predictive models when used to classify new data.

Method

This paper presents an adaptive approach that takes already built predictive models and adapts them (one at a time) to new data. We use an ant colony optimization algorithm in the adaptation process. The approach is validated on stability of classes in object-oriented software systems and can easily be used for any other software quality characteristic. It can also be easily extended to work with software quality predictive problems involving more than two classification labels.

Results

Results show that our approach out-performs the machine learning algorithm C4.5 as well as random guessing. It also preserves the expressiveness of the models which provide not only the classification label but also guidelines to attain it.

Conclusion

Our approach is an adaptive one that can be seen as taking predictive models that have already been built from common domain data and adapting them to context-specific data. This is suitable for the domain of software quality since the data is very scarce and hence predictive models built from one data set is hard to generalize and reuse on new data.  相似文献
6.
7.
软件缺陷预测通过预先识别出被测项目内的潜在缺陷程序模块,有助于合理分配测试资源,并最终提高被测软件产品的质量。但在搜集缺陷预测数据集的时候,由于考虑了大量与代码复杂度或开发过程相关的度量元,造成数据集内存在维数灾难问题。借助基于搜索的软件工程思想,提出一种新颖的基于搜索的包裹式特征选择框架SBFS。该框架在实现时,首先借助SMOTE方法来缓解数据集内存在的类不平衡问题,随后借助基于遗传算法的特征选择方法,基于训练集选出最优特征子集。在实证研究中,以NASA数据集作为评测对象,以基于前向选择策略的包裹式特征选择方法FW、基于后向选择策略的包裹式特征选择BW、不进行特征选择的Origin作为基准方法。最终实证研究结果表明:SBFS方法在90%的情况下,不差于Origin法。在82.3%的情况下,不差于BW法。在69.3%的情况下,不差于FW法。除此之外,我们发现若基于决策树分类器,则应用SMOTE方法后,可以在71%的情况下,提高模型性能。而基于朴素贝叶斯和Logistic回归分类器,则应用SMOTE方法后,仅可以在47%和43%的情况下,提高模型的预测性能。  相似文献
8.
This paper explores the relationship between software size, development effort and team size. We propose an approach aimed at finding the team size where the project effort has its minimum. The approach was applied to the ISBSG repository containing nearly 4000 software projects. Based on the results we provide our recommendation for the optimal or near-optimal team size in seven project groups defined by four project properties.  相似文献
9.
Automatic test data generation is a very popular domain in the field of search‐based software engineering. Traditionally, the main goal has been to maximize coverage. However, other objectives can be defined, such as the oracle cost, which is the cost of executing the entire test suite and the cost of checking the system behavior. Indeed, in very large software systems, the cost spent to test the system can be an issue, and then it makes sense by considering two conflicting objectives: maximizing the coverage and minimizing the oracle cost. This is what we did in this paper. We mainly compared two approaches to deal with the multi‐objective test data generation problem: a direct multi‐objective approach and a combination of a mono‐objective algorithm together with multi‐objective test case selection optimization. Concretely, in this work, we used four state‐of‐the‐art multi‐objective algorithms and two mono‐objective evolutionary algorithms followed by a multi‐objective test case selection based on Pareto efficiency. The experimental analysis compares these techniques on two different benchmarks. The first one is composed of 800 Java programs created through a program generator. The second benchmark is composed of 13 real programs extracted from the literature. In the direct multi‐objective approach, the results indicate that the oracle cost can be properly optimized; however, the full branch coverage of the system poses a great challenge. Regarding the mono‐objective algorithms, although they need a second phase of test case selection for reducing the oracle cost, they are very effective in maximizing the branch coverage. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
10.
王燕  聂长海  钮鑫涛  吴化尧  徐家喜 《软件学报》2018,29(12):3665-3691
组合测试可以有效检测待测系统中由参数间交互作用而引发的故障.在其30多年的发展过程中,覆盖表生成一直是关键问题之一,相关研究文献已达200多篇.作为一种有效的覆盖表生成算法,已有的禁忌搜索算法在所生成的覆盖表规模上具备一定的优势,但其解的质量和运算速度仍有提升空间;同时,这些算法实际应用能力较差,既不支持约束处理,也无法生成可变力度覆盖表.针对以上问题,提出了一种禁忌搜索算法.该算法从3个方面对已有的算法进行了改进:1)算法参数配置调优分pair-wise和爬山两阶段进行,确保使用较少配置条数最大程度击中最优配置,进一步提高算法生成覆盖表的规模;2)进行算法并行化,加速算法生成覆盖表的速度;3)增加约束处理和变力度处理,使算法可适应多种测试场景.实验结果表明,该算法在固定力度、变力度、带约束等多种类型覆盖表的规模上都具有一定优势,同时,并行化使算法平均加速2.6倍左右.  相似文献
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