首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   58215篇
  免费   7166篇
  国内免费   2935篇
电工技术   3982篇
综合类   3256篇
化学工业   10389篇
金属工艺   2894篇
机械仪表   2248篇
建筑科学   4257篇
矿业工程   1996篇
能源动力   1489篇
轻工业   6971篇
水利工程   1592篇
石油天然气   2774篇
武器工业   726篇
无线电   6504篇
一般工业技术   7319篇
冶金工业   3013篇
原子能技术   874篇
自动化技术   8032篇
  2024年   100篇
  2023年   1275篇
  2022年   2433篇
  2021年   3611篇
  2020年   2364篇
  2019年   2324篇
  2018年   2446篇
  2017年   2125篇
  2016年   3094篇
  2015年   3610篇
  2014年   4221篇
  2013年   4586篇
  2012年   3781篇
  2011年   3207篇
  2010年   2448篇
  2009年   2504篇
  2008年   2436篇
  2007年   3669篇
  2006年   3861篇
  2005年   3233篇
  2004年   2192篇
  2003年   2013篇
  2002年   1396篇
  2001年   851篇
  2000年   653篇
  1999年   542篇
  1998年   368篇
  1997年   319篇
  1996年   363篇
  1995年   289篇
  1994年   288篇
  1993年   185篇
  1992年   164篇
  1991年   165篇
  1990年   163篇
  1989年   130篇
  1988年   73篇
  1987年   78篇
  1986年   59篇
  1985年   66篇
  1984年   70篇
  1983年   45篇
  1982年   43篇
  1981年   38篇
  1980年   52篇
  1966年   29篇
  1964年   36篇
  1962年   65篇
  1959年   25篇
  1955年   22篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 156 毫秒
1.
The Gli-B1-encoded γ-gliadins and non-coding γ-gliadin DNA sequences for 15 different alleles of common wheat have been compared using seven tests: electrophoretic mobility (EM) and molecular weight (MW) of the encoded major γ-gliadin, restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns (RFLPs) (three different markers), Gli-B1-γ-gliadin-pseudogene known SNP markers (Single nucleotide polymorphisms) and sequencing the pseudogene GAG56B. It was discovered that encoded γ-gliadins, with contrasting EM, had similar MWs. However, seven allelic variants (designated from I to VII) differed among them in the other six tests: I (alleles Gli-B1i, k, m, o), II (Gli-B1n, q, s), III (Gli-B1b), IV (Gli-B1e, f, g), V (Gli-B1h), VI (Gli-B1d) and VII (Gli-B1a). Allele Gli-B1c (variant VIII) was identical to the alleles from group IV in four of the tests. Some tests might show a fine difference between alleles belonging to the same variant. Our results attest in favor of the independent origin of at least seven variants at the Gli-B1 locus that might originate from deeply diverged genotypes of the donor(s) of the B genome in hexaploid wheat and therefore might be called “heteroallelic”. The donor’s particularities at the Gli-B1 locus might be conserved since that time and decisively contribute to the current high genetic diversity of common wheat.  相似文献   
2.
Owing to the prohibition of cosmetic animal testing, various attempts have recently been made using skin-on-a-chip (SOC) technology as a replacement for animal testing. Previously, we reported the development of a pumpless SOC capable of drug testing with a simple drive using the principle that the medium flows along the channel by gravity when the chip is tilted using a microfluidic channel. In this study, using pumpless SOC, instead of drug testing at the single-cell level, we evaluated the efficacy of α-lipoic acid (ALA), which is known as an anti-aging substance in skin equivalents, for skin tissue and epidermal structure formation. The expression of proteins and changes in genotyping were compared and evaluated. Hematoxylin and eosin staining for histological analysis showed a difference in the activity of fibroblasts in the dermis layer with respect to the presence or absence of ALA. We observed that the epidermis layer became increasingly prominent as the culture period was extended by treatment with 10 μM ALA. The expression of epidermal structural proteins of filaggrin, involucrin, keratin 10, and collagen IV increased because of the effect of ALA. Changes in the epidermis layer were noticeable after the ALA treatment. As a result of aging, damage to the skin-barrier function and structural integrity is reduced, indicating that ALA has an anti-aging effect. We performed a gene analysis of filaggrin, involucrin, keratin 10, integrin, and collagen I genes in ALA-treated human skin equivalents, which indicated an increase in filaggrin gene expression after ALA treatment. These results indicate that pumpless SOC can be used as an in vitro skin model similar to human skin, protein and gene expression can be analyzed, and it can be used for functional drug tests of cosmetic materials in the future. This technology is expected to contribute to the development of skin disease models.  相似文献   
3.
4.
A self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) was developed to enhance the absorption of heparin after oral administration, in which heparin was compounded with phospholipids to achieve better fat solubility in the form of heparin-phospholipid (HEP-Pc) complex. HEP-Pc complex was prepared using the solvent evaporation method, which increased the solubility of heparin in n-octanol. The successful preparation of HEP-Pc complex was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, NMR, and SEM. A heparin lipid microemulsion (HEP-LM) was prepared by high-pressure homogenization and characterized. HEP-LM can enhance the absorption of heparin after oral administration, significantly prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) in mice, and reduce fibrinogen (FIB) content. All these outcomes indicate that HEP-LM has great potential as an oral heparin formulation.  相似文献   
5.
Considering the advent of antibiotic resistance, the study of bacterial metabolic behavior stimulated by novel antimicrobial agents becomes a relevant tool to elucidate involved adaptive pathways. Profiling of volatile metabolites was performed to monitor alterations of bacterial metabolism induced by biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNPs). Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis were isolated from pressure ulcers, and their cultures were prepared in the presence/absence of bio-AgNPs at 12.5, 25 and 50 µg mL−1. Headspace solid phase microextraction associated to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was the employed analytical platform. At the lower concentration level, the agent promoted positive modulation of products of fermentation routes and bioactive volatiles, indicating an attempt of bacteria to adapt to an ongoing suppression of cellular respiration. Augmented response of aldehydes and other possible products of lipid oxidative cleavage was noticed for increasing levels of bio-AgNPs. The greatest concentration of agent caused a reduction of 44 to 80% in the variety of compounds found in the control samples. Pathway analysis indicated overall inhibition of amino acids and fatty acids routes. The present assessment may provide a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of bio-AgNPs and how the metabolic response of bacteria is untangled.  相似文献   
6.
Hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating neonatal brain condition caused by lack of oxygen and limited blood flow. Environmental enrichment (EE) is a classic paradigm with a complex stimulation of physical, cognitive, and social components. EE can exert neuroplasticity and neuroprotective effects in immature brains. However, the exact mechanism of EE on the chronic condition of HIE remains unclear. HIE was induced by a permanent ligation of the right carotid artery, followed by an 8% O2 hypoxic condition for 1 h. At 6 weeks of age, HIE mice were randomly assigned to either standard cages or EE cages. In the behavioral assessments, EE mice showed significantly improved motor performances in rotarod tests, ladder walking tests, and hanging wire tests, compared with HIE control mice. EE mice also significantly enhanced cognitive performances in Y-maze tests. Particularly, EE mice showed a significant increase in Cav 2.1 (P/Q type) and presynaptic proteins by molecular assessments, and a significant increase of Cav 2.1 in histological assessments of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that EE can upregulate the expression of the Cav 2.1 channel and presynaptic proteins related to the synaptic vesicle cycle and neurotransmitter release, which may be responsible for motor and cognitive improvements in HIE.  相似文献   
7.
Background: Recently, it was reported that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4, also called GPR48) is another receptor for RANKL and was shown to compete with RANK to bind RANKL and suppress canonical RANK signaling during osteoclast differentiation. The critical role of the protein triad RANK–RANKL in osteoclastogenesis has made their binding an important target for the development of drugs against osteoporosis. In this study, point-mutations were introduced in the RANKL protein based on the crystal structure of the RANKL complex and its counterpart receptor RANK, and we investigated whether LGR4 signaling in the absence of the RANK signal could lead to the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis.; Methods: The effects of point-mutated RANKL (mRANKL-MT) on osteoclastogenesis were assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), resorption pit formation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blot, NFATc1 nuclear translocation, micro-CT and histomorphological assay in wild type RANKL (mRANKL-WT)-induced in vitro and in vivo experimental mice model. Results: As a proof of concept, treatment with the mutant RANKL led to the stimulation of GSK-3β phosphorylation, as well as the inhibition of NFATc1 translocation, mRNA expression of TRAP and OSCAR, TRAP activity, and bone resorption, in RANKL-induced mouse models; and Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrate that the mutant RANKL can be used as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis via comparative inhibition of RANKL. Moreover, the mutant RANKL was found to lack the toxic side effects of most osteoporosis treatments.  相似文献   
8.
Chronic infections are considered one of the most severe problems in skin wounds, and bacteria are present in over 90% of chronic wounds. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated from chronic wounds and is thought to be a cause of delayed wound healing. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, unique lymphocytes with a potent regulatory ability in various inflammatory responses, accelerate the wound healing process. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of iNKT cells in the host defense against P. aeruginosa inoculation at the wound sites. We analyzed the re-epithelialization, bacterial load, accumulation of leukocytes, and production of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. In iNKT cell–deficient (Jα18KO) mice, re-epithelialization was significantly decreased, and the number of live colonies was significantly increased, when compared with those in wild-type (WT) mice on day 7. IL-17A, and IL-22 production was significantly lower in Jα18KO mice than in WT mice on day 5. Furthermore, the administration of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a specific activator of iNKT cells, led to enhanced host protection, as shown by reduced bacterial load, and to increased production of IL-22, IL-23, and S100A9 compared that of with WT mice. These results suggest that iNKT cells promote P. aeruginosa clearance during skin wound healing.  相似文献   
9.
β-Glucan is widely distributed in various plants and microorganisms and is composed of β-1,3-linked d-glucose units. It may have a branched short or long side chain of glucose units with β-1,6- or β-1,4-linkage. Numerous studies have investigated different β-glucans and revealed their bioactivities. To understand the structure-function relationship of β-glucan, we constructed a split-luciferase complementation assay for the structural analysis of long-chain β-1,6-branched β-1,3-glucan. The N- and C-terminal fragments of luciferase from deep-sea shrimp were fused to insect-derived β-1,3-glucan recognition protein and fungal endo-β-1,6-glucanase (Neg1)-derived β-1,6-glucan recognition protein, respectively. In this approach, two β-glucan recognition proteins bound to β-glucan molecules come into close proximity, resulting in the assembly of the full-length reporter enzyme and induction of transient luciferase activity, indicative of the structure of β-glucan. To test the applicability of this assay, β-glucan and two β-glucan recognition proteins were mixed, resulting in an increase in the luminescence intensity in a β-1,3-glucan with a long polymer of β-1,6-glucan in a dose-dependent manner. This simple test also allows the monitoring of real-time changes in the side chain structure and serves as a convenient method to distinguish between β-1,3-glucan and long-chain β-1,6-branched β-1,3-glucan in various soluble and insoluble β-glucans.  相似文献   
10.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication can be divided into three major steps: initiation, elongation and termination. Each time a human cell divides, these steps must be reiteratively carried out. Disruption of DNA replication can lead to genomic instability, with the accumulation of point mutations or larger chromosomal anomalies such as rearrangements. While cancer is the most common class of disease associated with genomic instability, several congenital diseases with dysfunctional DNA replication give rise to similar DNA alterations. In this review, we discuss all congenital diseases that arise from pathogenic variants in essential replication genes across the spectrum of aberrant replisome assembly, origin activation and DNA synthesis. For each of these conditions, we describe their clinical phenotypes as well as molecular studies aimed at determining the functional mechanisms of disease, including the assessment of genomic stability. By comparing and contrasting these diseases, we hope to illuminate how the disruption of DNA replication at distinct steps affects human health in a surprisingly cell-type-specific manner.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号