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1.
目的 了解公众对网络食品药品谣言信息及虚假宣传甄别能力和行为态度,探索防范谣言传播、维护社会稳定的有效措施和途径。方法 采用随机抽样研究方法,对贵州省某少数民族自治州公众开展食品药品网络谣言及虚假宣传辨识能力、行为态度问卷调查。结果 当地公众食品药品网络谣言及虚假宣传辨识能力总体较低,经济发展落后地区的青少年人群对网络谣言及虚假宣传的辨识能力较弱。大部分公众处理网络食品药品安全信息较为理性,更愿意通过国家监管部门权威网站了解信息,基本具备了确认信息真实性的主观意识,但辟除谣言的行动能力不高。结论 地方党委政府及有关部门应加强食品药品网络谣言和虚假宣传治理,加大当地谣言及虚假宣传的监测和系统性分析研究,有针对性、预判性地进行治理和科普宣传。  相似文献   
2.
The current trends in energy were described, the main of which is the use of alternative energy sources, especially hydrogen. The most common methods of hydrogen accumulation were proposed: accumulation of compressed gaseous hydrogen in high-pressure tanks; accumulation of liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks; storing hydrogen in a chemically bound state; accumulation of gaseous hydrogen in carriers with a high specific surface area. Based on the combination of advantages and disadvantages, the most promising methods of accumulation were selected: storage of liquid hydrogen and storage of hydrogen in carriers with a high specific surface area. The main requirement for materials for hydrogen storage by these methods was revealed – a high specific surface area. Prospects for the development of waste-free low-emission technologies due to the recycling of secondary raw materials and the development of low-temperature technologies for the synthesis of functional and structural materials were substantiated. The applicability of large-scale ash and slag waste from coal-fired thermal power plants as a raw material for obtaining materials by low-temperature technologies was shown. The traditional ways of using ash and slag waste as a raw material, active additive and filler in the production of cements were described. Modern technologies for the production of innovative materials with a unique set of properties were presented, namely carbon nanotubes, silica aerogel and geopolymer materials. The prospect of using geopolymer matrices as a precursor for the synthesis of a number of materials was described; the most promising type of materials was selected – geopolymer foams, which are mainly used as sorbents for purifying liquids and gases or accumulating target products, as well as heat-insulating materials. The possibility of obtaining products of any shape and size on the basis of geopolymer matrices without high-temperature processing was shown. The special efficiency of the development of the technology of porous granules and powders obtained from a geopolymer precursor using various methods was substantiated. The obtained granules can be used in the following hydrogen storage technologies: direct accumulation of hydrogen in porous granules; creation of insulating layers for liquid hydrogen storage units.  相似文献   
3.
Waste-to-fuel coupled with carbon capture and storage is forecasted to be an effective way to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions, reduce the waste sent to landfill and, simultaneously, reduce the dependence of fossil fuels. This study evaluated the techno-economic feasibility of sorption enhanced gasification, which involves in-situ CO2 capture, and benchmarked it with the conventional steam gasification of municipal solid waste for H2 production. The impact of a gate fee and tax levied on the fossil CO2 emissions in economic feasibility was assessed. The results showed that the hydrogen production was enhanced in sorption enhanced gasification, that achieved an optimum H2 production efficiency of 48.7% (T = 650 °C and SBR = 1.8). This was 1.0% points higher than that of the conventional steam gasification (T = 900 °C and SBR = 1.2). However, the total efficiency, which accounts for H2 production and net power output, for sorption enhanced gasification was estimated to be 49.3% (T = 650 °C and SBR = 1.8). This was 4.4% points lower than the figure estimated for the conventional gasification (T = 900 °C and SBR = 1.2). The economic performance assessment showed that the sorption enhanced gasification will result in a significantly higher levelised cost of hydrogen (5.0 €/kg) compared to that estimated for conventional steam gasification (2.7 €/kg). The levelised cost of hydrogen can be reduced to 4.5 €/kg on an introduction of the gate fee of 40.0 €/tMSW. The cost of CO2 avoided was estimated to be 114.9 €/tCO2 (no gate fee and tax levied). However, this value can be reduced to 90.1 €/tCO2 with the introduction of an emission allowance price of 39.6 €/tCO2. Despite better environmental performance, the capital cost of sorption enhanced gasification needs to be reduced for this technology to become competitive with mature gasification technologies.  相似文献   
4.
学习不仅仅是自然科学知识的学习,更是社会科学、民族文化、正确人生观和价值观的形成过程,“课程思政”无疑正是实现该目标的捷径,它是当前高等院校思想政治教育的新模式。如何提升学生解决“复杂工程问题”的能力成为高校开展工程教育和“新工科”的难点和重点,而课程思政正是培养学生解决“复杂工程问题”中所需要的非技术因素的重要途径。“自动控制系统工程设计”是自动化专业高年级学生的一门专业课,当前关于“课程思政”的论述是指导思想居多、实施经验以及案例设计较少,针对该问题以“自动控制系统工程设计”为例,详细给出了“课程思政”教学案例的具体实施过程,对同类课程提供参考。  相似文献   
5.
如何在互联网时代打造一个信息化的管理模式,已经成为广大学校图书管理发展过程中亟待处理的问题。文章就互联网时代下的高职图书管理信息化建设进行了详细探讨,以期能够给广大同仁提供一些借鉴参考,共同为图书管理工作的现代化改革和发展贡献力量。  相似文献   
6.
寒区河道凌汛灾害河势“弯道效应”的量化评估十分重要。基于分形理论提出河道横断面-纵剖面-平面多维度河势分形维数计算方法及其物理机制,并探讨黄河内蒙古段不同维度河势演变分形特征及其与凌汛灾害的关联关系。结果表明,黄河内蒙古段不同维度河势均具有多尺度自相似分形特征,且具有多年记忆周期的长程相关性;冰坝(严重性冰塞)发生频次与河道主槽弯曲分形维数呈正相关指数型函数关系,与河相系数、深泓点高程和河段平均底坡分形维数负相关,与水深-面积分形维数正相关,总体表明冰坝灾害更易发生于主槽偏移摆动大、蜿蜒曲折、河湾发育程度高的宽浅型弯曲河道,研究成果可为凌汛期冰塞冰坝灾害易发河段诊断及预测提供重要理论依据。  相似文献   
7.
Proper management of the liquid water and heat produced in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells remains crucial to increase both its performance and durability. In this study, a two-phase flow and multicomponent model, called two-fluid model, is developed in the commercial COMSOL Multiphysics® software to investigate the liquid water heterogeneities in large area PEM fuel cells, considering the real flow fields in the bipolar plate. A macroscopic pseudo-3D multi-layers approach has been chosen and generalized Darcy's relation is used both in the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) and in the channel. The model considers two-phase flow and gas convection and diffusion coupled with electrochemistry and water transport through the membrane. The numerical results are compared to one-fluid model results and liquid water measurements obtained by neutron imaging for several operating conditions. Finally, according to the good agreement between the two-fluid and experimentation results, the numerical water distribution is examined in each component of the cell, exhibiting very heterogeneous water thickness over the cell surface.  相似文献   
8.
In the last few decades, global warming, environmental pollution, and an energy shortage of fossil fuel may cause a severe economic crisis and health threats. Storage, conversion, and application of regenerable and dispersive energy would be a promising solution to release this crisis. The development of porous carbon materials from regenerated biomass are competent methods to store energy with high performance and limited environmental damages. In this regard, bio-carbon with abundant surface functional groups and an easily tunable three-dimensional porous structure may be a potential candidate as a sustainable and green carbon material. Up to now, although some literature has screened the biomass source, reaction temperature, and activator dosage during thermochemical synthesis, a comprehensive evaluation and a detailed discussion of the relationship between raw materials, preparation methods, and the structural and chemical properties of carbon materials are still lacking. Hence, in this review, we first assess the recent advancements in carbonization and activation process of biomass with different compositions and the activity performance in various energy storage applications including supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and hydrogen storage, highlighting the mechanisms and open questions in current energy society. After that, the connections between preparation methods and porous carbon properties including specific surface area, pore volume, and surface chemistry are reviewed in detail. Importantly, we discuss the relationship between the pore structure of prepared porous carbon with surface functional groups, and the energy storage performance in various energy storage fields for different biomass sources and thermal conversion methods. Finally, the conclusion and prospective are concluded to give an outlook for the development of biomass carbon materials, and energy storage applications technologies. This review demonstrates significant potentials for energy applications of biomass materials, and it is expected to inspire new discoveries to promote practical applications of biomass materials in more energy storage and conversion fields.  相似文献   
9.
Polymer electrets have revealed great potential application in electromechanical devices because of the low weight, large quasi-piezoelectric sensitivity, and excellent flexibility. For an electret, a permanent and macroscopic electric field exists on the surface, principally led by a macroscopic electrostatic charge on the surface or a net orientation of polar groups inside the object. Here, progress in the development of polymer electrets is reviewed. After a brief retrospect of the research courses and those typical polymer electrets that are classified into fluorine polymer and nonfluorine polymer, we present a survey on the charging methods, including corona, soft X-ray, contact, thermal and monoenergetic particle beams. The latest representative applications (i.e., power harvesting, sensors, field effect transistors, and biomedicine) based on polymer electrets are also summarized. Finally, we complete this review with a discussion on perspectives and challenges in this field.  相似文献   
10.
以“创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享”为内核的新发展理念,是对马克思主义发展理念的继承和发扬,极具时代精神,富含问题意识,为高校思想政治教育发展、教育教学改革实践提供了强大的理论支撑。本文以“通信原理”为例,阐述了新发展理念在课程改革中的思路和方法,实现了思想政治教育与专业基础课程有机融合,为深化高校教学改革、创新人才培养模式提供了思路。  相似文献   
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