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1.
The Gli-B1-encoded γ-gliadins and non-coding γ-gliadin DNA sequences for 15 different alleles of common wheat have been compared using seven tests: electrophoretic mobility (EM) and molecular weight (MW) of the encoded major γ-gliadin, restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns (RFLPs) (three different markers), Gli-B1-γ-gliadin-pseudogene known SNP markers (Single nucleotide polymorphisms) and sequencing the pseudogene GAG56B. It was discovered that encoded γ-gliadins, with contrasting EM, had similar MWs. However, seven allelic variants (designated from I to VII) differed among them in the other six tests: I (alleles Gli-B1i, k, m, o), II (Gli-B1n, q, s), III (Gli-B1b), IV (Gli-B1e, f, g), V (Gli-B1h), VI (Gli-B1d) and VII (Gli-B1a). Allele Gli-B1c (variant VIII) was identical to the alleles from group IV in four of the tests. Some tests might show a fine difference between alleles belonging to the same variant. Our results attest in favor of the independent origin of at least seven variants at the Gli-B1 locus that might originate from deeply diverged genotypes of the donor(s) of the B genome in hexaploid wheat and therefore might be called “heteroallelic”. The donor’s particularities at the Gli-B1 locus might be conserved since that time and decisively contribute to the current high genetic diversity of common wheat.  相似文献   
2.
Cell encapsulation within hydrogel droplets is transforming what is feasible in multiple fields of biomedical science such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in vitro modeling, and cell-based therapies. Recent advances have allowed researchers to miniaturize material encapsulation complexes down to single-cell scales, where each complex, termed a single-cell microgel, contains only one cell surrounded by a hydrogel matrix while remaining <100 μm in size. With this achievement, studies requiring single-cell resolution are now possible, similar to those done using liquid droplet encapsulation. Of particular note, applications involving long-term in vitro cultures, modular bioinks, high-throughput screenings, and formation of 3D cellular microenvironments can be tuned independently to suit the needs of individual cells and experimental goals. In this progress report, an overview of established materials and techniques used to fabricate single-cell microgels, as well as insight into potential alternatives is provided. This focused review is concluded by discussing applications that have already benefited from single-cell microgel technologies, as well as prospective applications on the cusp of achieving important new capabilities.  相似文献   
3.
An improved glucose-chelator-albumin bioconjugate (GluCAB) derivative, GluCAB-2Mal, has been synthesized and studied for in vivo 64Cu-PET/CT imaging in breast cancer mice models together with its first-generation analogue GluCAB-1Mal. The radioligand works on the principle of tumor targeting through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect with a supportive role played by glucose metabolism. [64Cu]Cu-GluCAB-2Mal (99 % RCP) exhibited high serum stability with immediate binding to serum proteins. In vivo experiments for comparison between tumor targeting of [64Cu]Cu-GluCAB-2Mal and previous-generation [64Cu]Cu-GluCAB-1Mal encompassed microPET/CT imaging and biodistribution analysis in an allograft E0771 breast cancer mouse model. Tumor uptake of [64Cu]Cu-GluCAB-2Mal was clearly evident with twice as much accumulation as compared to its predecessor and a tumor/muscle ratio of up to 5 after 24 h. Further comparison indicated a decrease in liver accumulation for [64Cu]Cu-Glu-CAB-2Mal.  相似文献   
4.
Tumor cell aggregation is critical for cell survival following the loss of extracellular matrix attachment and dissemination. However, the underlying mechanotransduction of clustering solitary tumor cells is poorly understood, especially in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Here, we examined whether cell surface protrusions played an important role in facilitating the physical contact between floating cells detached from a substrate. We employed poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-based 3D culture methods to mimic in vivo tumor cell cluster formation. The suprastructural analysis of human NSCLC A549 cell spheroids showed that finger-like protrusions clung together via the actin cytoskeleton. Time-lapse holotomography demonstrated that the finger-like protrusions of free-floating cells in 3D culture displayed exploratory coalescence. Global gene expression analysis demonstrated that the genes in the organic hydroxyl transport were particularly enriched in the A549 cell spheroids. Particularly, the knockdown of the water channel aquaporin 3 gene (AQP3) impaired multicellular aggregate formation in 3D culture through the rearrangement of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Moreover, the cells with reduced levels of AQP3 decreased their transmigration. Overall, these data indicate that cell detachment-upregulated AQP3 contributes to cell surface protrusions through actomyosin cytoskeleton remodeling, causing the aggressive aggregation of free-floating cells dependent on the property of the substratum and collective metastasis.  相似文献   
5.
An easy albeit quite effective deionization suspension treatment was adopted to alleviate the detrimental effects related to the hydrolysis of Y2O3 in an aqueous medium. Fabrication of highly transparent Y2O3 ceramics with a fine grain size via air pre-sintering and post–hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatment without using any sintering additive was achieved using the treated suspensions. The hydrolysis issue of Y2O3 powder in an aqueous medium was effectively alleviated by using deionization treatment, and a well-dispersed suspension with a low concentration of dissolved Y3+ species was obtained. The dispersed suspensions were consolidated by the centrifugal casting method, and the green bodies derived from the suspension of 35.0 vol% solid loading showed an improved homogeneity with a relative density of 52.1%. Fully dense Y2O3 transparent ceramic with high transparency was obtained by pre-sintering consolidated green compacts at a low temperature of 1400°C for 16 h in air followed by a post-HIP treatment at 1550°C for 2 h under 200 MPa pressure. The sample had a fine average grain size of 690 nm. The in-line transmittance of the sample reached 83.3% and 81.8% at 1100 nm and 800 nm, respectively, very close to the theoretical values of Y2O3.  相似文献   
6.
Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-based materials have been earmarked for one of the first large-volume applications of lead-free piezoceramics in high-power ultrasonics. Zn2+-doping is demonstrated as a viable route to enhance the thermal depolarization temperature and electromechanically harden (1-y)Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-yBaTiO3 (NBT100yBT) with a maximum achievable operating temperature of 150 °C and mechanical quality factor of 627 for 1 mole % Zn2+-doped NBT6BT. Although quenching from sintering temperatures has been recently touted to enhance TF-R, with quenching the doped compositions featuring an additional increase in TF-R by 17 °C, it exhibits negligible effect on the electromechanical properties. The effect is rationalized considering the missing influence on conductivity and therefore, negligible changes in the defect chemistry upon quenching. High-resolution diffraction indicates that Zn2+-doped samples favor the tetragonal phase with enhanced lattice distortion, further corroborated by 23Na Nuclear Magnetic Resonance investigations.  相似文献   
7.
The strengthening method of multi-element M-site solid solution is a common approach to improve mechanical properties of MAX phase ceramic. However, the research on capability of multi-element A-site solid solution to improve mechanical properties has rarely been reported. Thereupon, quasi-high-entropy MAX phase ceramic bulks of Ti2(Al1?xAx)C and Ti3(Al1?xAx)C2 (A = Ga, In, Sn, x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were successfully synthesized by in situ vacuum hot pressing via multi-elements solid solution. The multi-elements solid solution in single-atom thick A layer was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mappings. Effects of doped multi-elements contents on the phase, microstructure, mechanical properties, and high temperature tribological behaviors were studied. Results demonstrated that the Vickers hardness, anisotropic flexural strength, fracture toughness, and tribological properties of Ti–Al–C based MAX ceramics could be remarkably improved by constitution of quasi-high-entropy MAX phase in A layers. Moreover, the strengthening and wear mechanisms were also discussed in detail. This method of multi-element solid solution at A-site provides new way to enhance mechanical properties of other MAX phase ceramics.  相似文献   
8.
Chronic infections are considered one of the most severe problems in skin wounds, and bacteria are present in over 90% of chronic wounds. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated from chronic wounds and is thought to be a cause of delayed wound healing. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, unique lymphocytes with a potent regulatory ability in various inflammatory responses, accelerate the wound healing process. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of iNKT cells in the host defense against P. aeruginosa inoculation at the wound sites. We analyzed the re-epithelialization, bacterial load, accumulation of leukocytes, and production of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. In iNKT cell–deficient (Jα18KO) mice, re-epithelialization was significantly decreased, and the number of live colonies was significantly increased, when compared with those in wild-type (WT) mice on day 7. IL-17A, and IL-22 production was significantly lower in Jα18KO mice than in WT mice on day 5. Furthermore, the administration of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a specific activator of iNKT cells, led to enhanced host protection, as shown by reduced bacterial load, and to increased production of IL-22, IL-23, and S100A9 compared that of with WT mice. These results suggest that iNKT cells promote P. aeruginosa clearance during skin wound healing.  相似文献   
9.
The morphology and microstructure of splats impact the comprehensive capability of a new coating methodology called chelate flame spraying (CFS). This study addresses the quantitative characterization of the spread morphologies of flame sprayed Er2O3 splats directly deposited under different spray conditions on aluminum alloy substrates with a mirror finish. The influence of the in-flight particle temperature and velocity, carrier gas type, and carrier gas ratio on the solidification mechanism of molten droplets was investigated. Image analysis methods were employed to identify single splats from the morphology observed with field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). In addition, Er2O3 films were synthesized on an Al–Mg alloy (A5052) substrate using N2 or O2 as the carrier gas. When O2 was used as the carrier gas, 109-μm-thick films were deposited on the A5052 substrate. The cross-sectional porosity of the films was 3.8%. In contrast, films with 101-μm thickness were synthesized on the A5052 substrate when N2 was used as the carrier gas. The cross-sectional porosity of these films was 13.8%. The results showed that the carrier gas type (N2) and carrier gas ratio had a significant effect on the flattening behavior of the molten droplets. A spraying method combined with multidimensional modes is proposed to control the morphology of the splats.  相似文献   
10.
In the current study two different batches of X7R-0603 BME-MLCCs displayed dissimilar electrical performance, despite having the same chemical composition, tape casting, and sintering conditions; with the only difference between them being the ore deposits where the raw materials were extracted from to synthesize the BaTiO3. Specifically, they presented different electrical response to highly accelerated life tests (HALT). Although the chemical analysis of each slip showed the same composition, the trace elements of the BaTiO3 sources could have acted as dopants or produced different secondary phases. A search for precipitates in the two samples was conducted by means of Scanning (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. SEM observations confirmed the presence of precipitates formed within the structure of the MLCCs exhibiting the greatest decrement in their electrical resistance results during the HALT. In order to further characterize the observed precipitates, samples were prepared by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lift-out method, to make TEM characterization of specific precipitates feasible. TEM studies were performed on the precipitates to obtain electron diffraction patterns and complementary Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDXS) chemical analysis. Based on the crystal and chemical data obtained, it can be concluded that the precipitates are a hexagonal anhydrous silicate oxyapatite phase with a stoichiometry of Ca3Y16Si10O13, and lattice parameters of a = 0.9353 nm and c = 0.6970 nm; this phase was not found in the JCPDS data base. Differences in raw materials coming from different ore deposits can produce undesired precipitates that affect the electrical performance of MLCCs.  相似文献   
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