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1.
Cell encapsulation within hydrogel droplets is transforming what is feasible in multiple fields of biomedical science such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in vitro modeling, and cell-based therapies. Recent advances have allowed researchers to miniaturize material encapsulation complexes down to single-cell scales, where each complex, termed a single-cell microgel, contains only one cell surrounded by a hydrogel matrix while remaining <100 μm in size. With this achievement, studies requiring single-cell resolution are now possible, similar to those done using liquid droplet encapsulation. Of particular note, applications involving long-term in vitro cultures, modular bioinks, high-throughput screenings, and formation of 3D cellular microenvironments can be tuned independently to suit the needs of individual cells and experimental goals. In this progress report, an overview of established materials and techniques used to fabricate single-cell microgels, as well as insight into potential alternatives is provided. This focused review is concluded by discussing applications that have already benefited from single-cell microgel technologies, as well as prospective applications on the cusp of achieving important new capabilities.  相似文献   
2.
Graphene-based materials have attracted significant attention in many technological fields, but scaling up graphene-based technologies still faces substantial challenges. High-throughput top-down methods generally require hazardous, toxic, and high-boiling-point solvents. Here, an efficient and inexpensive strategy is proposed to produce graphene dispersions by liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) through a combination of shear-mixing (SM) and tip sonication (TS) techniques, yielding highly concentrated graphene inks compatible with spray coating. The quality of graphene flakes (e.g., lateral size and thickness) and their concentration in the dispersions are compared using different spectroscopic and microscopy techniques. Several approaches (individual SM and TS, and their combination) are tested in three solvents (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, dimethylformamide, and cyrene). Interestingly, the combination of SM and TS in cyrene yields high-quality graphene dispersions, overcoming the environmental issues linked to the other two solvents. Starting from the cyrene dispersion, a graphene-based ink is prepared to spray-coat flexible electrodes and assemble a touch screen prototype. The electrodes feature a low sheet resistance (290 Ω □−1) and high optical transmittance (78%), which provide the prototype with a high signal-to-noise ratio (14 dB) and multi-touch functionality (up to four simultaneous touches). These results illustrate a potential pathway toward the integration of LPE-graphene in commercial flexible electronics.  相似文献   
3.
An improved glucose-chelator-albumin bioconjugate (GluCAB) derivative, GluCAB-2Mal, has been synthesized and studied for in vivo 64Cu-PET/CT imaging in breast cancer mice models together with its first-generation analogue GluCAB-1Mal. The radioligand works on the principle of tumor targeting through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect with a supportive role played by glucose metabolism. [64Cu]Cu-GluCAB-2Mal (99 % RCP) exhibited high serum stability with immediate binding to serum proteins. In vivo experiments for comparison between tumor targeting of [64Cu]Cu-GluCAB-2Mal and previous-generation [64Cu]Cu-GluCAB-1Mal encompassed microPET/CT imaging and biodistribution analysis in an allograft E0771 breast cancer mouse model. Tumor uptake of [64Cu]Cu-GluCAB-2Mal was clearly evident with twice as much accumulation as compared to its predecessor and a tumor/muscle ratio of up to 5 after 24 h. Further comparison indicated a decrease in liver accumulation for [64Cu]Cu-Glu-CAB-2Mal.  相似文献   
4.
The effect of dry and wet ball milling of LiFe5O8 ferrite powder on the microstructure and electromagnetic properties of ferrite ceramics was studied using XRD analysis, scanning electron microscopy, dilatometry, thermogravimetry, calorimetry, and measurement of specific magnetization and electrical resistance. The sintering temperature was 1050 °C; the sintering time was 2 h. It was found that ferrite fabricated from dry-milled powder exhibits an ordered α-LiFe5O8 phase with bulk density of 91%. Its saturation magnetization and Curie temperature are 55 emu/g and 628°С, respectively. Specific electrical resistance is 4?106 Ω cm. Wet milling in isopropyl alcohol causes formation of a disordered β-LiFe5O8 phase. Ceramics produced by this method shows higher bulk density (97%) and low porosity, and an order of magnitude lower resistivity. Its saturation magnetization and Curie temperature are 51 emu/g and 607°С, respectively.  相似文献   
5.
《Ceramics International》2021,47(24):34278-34288
Materials exhibiting colossal dielectric constant are the most sought-after materials due to their variety of applications in various electronics industries. NiFe2O4 and LaFeO3 belonging to the spinel and perovskite structures, respectively, were coupled into a nanocomposite by adapting a one-pot sol-gel synthesis. The ratio of NiFe2O4:LaFeO3 was varied and the synthesized materials were studied for their dielectric behaviors. Interestingly, among the samples studied, the nanocomposite with the ratio of 1:2 of NiFe2O4–LaFeO3 exhibited a high dielectric constant value of 10390 at a frequency of 1 kHz with a several-fold increase in conductivity. The high conductivity resulted in a high dielectric loss. The origin of such a high dielectric constant and loss have been attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner type space charge polarization arising from the microstructure that consists of large and continuous grain boundaries, and the conducting phase at the interface, respectively.  相似文献   
6.
Chronic infections are considered one of the most severe problems in skin wounds, and bacteria are present in over 90% of chronic wounds. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently isolated from chronic wounds and is thought to be a cause of delayed wound healing. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, unique lymphocytes with a potent regulatory ability in various inflammatory responses, accelerate the wound healing process. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of iNKT cells in the host defense against P. aeruginosa inoculation at the wound sites. We analyzed the re-epithelialization, bacterial load, accumulation of leukocytes, and production of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. In iNKT cell–deficient (Jα18KO) mice, re-epithelialization was significantly decreased, and the number of live colonies was significantly increased, when compared with those in wild-type (WT) mice on day 7. IL-17A, and IL-22 production was significantly lower in Jα18KO mice than in WT mice on day 5. Furthermore, the administration of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a specific activator of iNKT cells, led to enhanced host protection, as shown by reduced bacterial load, and to increased production of IL-22, IL-23, and S100A9 compared that of with WT mice. These results suggest that iNKT cells promote P. aeruginosa clearance during skin wound healing.  相似文献   
7.
The introduction of multiple heterogeneous interfaces in a ceramic is an efficient way to increase its thermal resistance. Novel porous SiC–SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 (SSAT) ceramics were fabricated to achieve multiple heterogeneous interfaces by sintering equal volumes of SiC, SiO2, Al2O3, and TiO2 compacted powders with polysiloxane as a bonding phase and carbon as a template at 600 °C in air. The porosity could be controlled between 66% and 74% by adjusting the amounts of polysiloxane and the carbon template. The lowest thermal conductivity (0.059 W/(m·K) at 74% porosity) obtained in this study is an order of magnitude lower than those (0.2–1.3 W/(m·K)) of porous monolithic SiC, SiO2, Al2O3, and TiO2 ceramics at an equivalent porosity. The typical specific compressive strength value of the porous SSAT ceramics at 74% porosity was 3.2 MPa cm3/g.  相似文献   
8.
Recently, the successful synthesis of wafer-scale single-crystal graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and MoS2 on transition metal surfaces with step edges boosted the research interests in synthesizing wafer-scale 2D single crystals on high-index substrate surfaces. Here, using hBN growth on high-index Cu surfaces as an example, a systematic theoretical study to understand the epitaxial growth of 2D materials on various high-index surfaces is performed. It is revealed that hBN orientation on a high-index surface is highly dependent on the alignment of the step edges of the surface as well as the surface roughness. On an ideal high-index surface, well-aligned hBN islands can be easily achieved, whereas curved step edges on a rough surface can lead to the alignment of hBN along with different directions. This study shows that high-index surfaces with a large step density are robust for templating the epitaxial growth of 2D single crystals due to their large tolerance for surface roughness and provides a general guideline for the epitaxial growth of various 2D single crystals.  相似文献   
9.
伊拉克A油田Asmari组为大型混积型碳酸盐岩油藏,发育灰岩、白云岩、砂岩、泥岩和硬石膏等多种岩性,储层复杂、非均质性强,存在多种类型的隔夹层。基于岩心、薄片、测井和分析测试等资料,对研究区隔夹层类型及特征展开综合分析,识别出了泥岩、硬膏岩和泥-微晶碳酸盐岩3类隔夹层。泥岩和硬石膏致密无孔隙、基本不具有渗流能力,对流体流动可以起到阻挡作用;泥-微晶碳酸盐岩属于细粒碳酸盐岩沉积,孔隙度低,但一般裂缝较发育,具有一定渗流能力,不能对流体起到有效的隔挡作用。硬石膏主要在油田中部及北部A段发育,其对油田北部储层纵向连通起到一定隔挡作用,导致纵向压力衰竭不一致。泥岩主要在C段顶部、B4和B1层发育,平面上主要在油田南部较发育。C段顶部发育一套厚度较大、稳定分布的泥岩隔层,将C段和上部B段及A段分隔为两个独立的油水系统,并有效阻挡了C段水层锥进到B段;B4和B1层泥岩较发育,但由于油田南部区域断层和裂缝较发育,导致泥岩隔夹层未能起到有效隔挡作用。搞清研究区隔夹层类型、分布及是否起隔挡作用,对A油田各区域各小层有效动用开发、见水规律研究具有很好的指导意义。  相似文献   
10.
介绍了3D打印混凝土的特点与前景,综述了挤出型工艺的3D打印混凝土的压、拉、折、剪基本力学性能以及增强措施。研究表明:打印层在喷嘴的挤压作用下密实度有所提高,但同时层间易形成薄弱界面,造成性能的各向异性,通过调整胶凝材料、掺入纤维、优化工艺、水浴养护、布筋等措施能有效改善。此外,提出了还需进一步研究的问题。  相似文献   
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