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1.
《Ceramics International》2021,47(19):27535-27544
In this paper, we present an efficient and effective method to predict the pressure dependence and temperature dependence of second-order elastic constants (SOECs) by introducing third-order elastic constants (TOECs) in the monocarbide ultrahigh temperature ceramics. The method is validated by comparing with experiments and previous calculations in four TMCs (TM = Nb, Ti, V, Zr). Using this method, we investigate the derivatives of SOECs against pressure and temperature as well as the anisotropic properties of polycrystalline modulus. In addition, we fit the SOECs with pressure and temperature under the framework of CALPHAD for practice usage.  相似文献   
2.
Growing interest in extracellular vesicles (EVs) has prompted the advancements of protocols for improved EV characterization. As a high-throughput, multi-parameter, and single particle technique, flow cytometry is widely used for EV characterization. The comparison of data on EV concentration, however, is hindered by the lack of standardization between different protocols and instruments. Here, we quantified EV counts of platelet-derived EVs, using two flow cytometers (Gallios and CytoFLEX LX) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Phosphatidylserine-exposing EVs were identified by labelling with lactadherin (LA). Calibration with silica-based fluorescent beads showed detection limits of 300 nm and 150 nm for Gallios and CytoFLEX LX, respectively. Accordingly, CytoFLEX LX yielded 40-fold higher EV counts and 13-fold higher counts of LA+CD41+ EVs compared to Gallios. NTA in fluorescence mode (F-NTA) demonstrated that only 9.5% of all vesicles detected in scatter mode exposed phosphatidylserine, resulting in good agreement of LA+ EVs for CytoFLEX LX and F-NTA. Since certain functional characteristics, such as the exposure of pro-coagulant phosphatidylserine, are not equally displayed across the entire EV size range, our study highlights the necessity of indicating the size range of EVs detected with a given approach along with the EV concentration to support the comparability between different studies.  相似文献   
3.
Semi-synthetic triterpenoids, holding an amino substituted seven-membered A-ring (azepano-ring), which could be synthesized from triterpenic oximes through a Beckmann type rearrangement followed by a reduction of lactame fragment, are considered to be novel promising agents exhibiting anti-microbial, alpha-glucosidase, and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. In this study, in an attempt to develop new antitumor candidates, a series of A-ring azepano- and 3-amino-3,4-seco-derivatives of betulin, oleanolic, ursolic, and glycyrrhetinic acids were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines and non-malignant mouse fibroblasts by means of a colorimetric sulforhodamine assay. Azepanoallobetulinic acid amide derivative 11 was the most cytotoxic compound of this series but showed little selectivity between the different human tumor cell lines. Flow cytometry experiments showed compound 11 to act mainly by apoptosis (44.3%) and late apoptosis (21.4%). The compounds were further screened at the National Cancer Institute towards a panel of 60 cancer cell lines. It was found that compounds 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 15, 16, 19, and 20 showed growth inhibitory (GI50) against the most sensitive cell lines at submicromolar concentrations (0.20–0.94 μM), and their cytotoxic activity (LC50) was also high (1–6 μM). Derivatives 3, 8, 11, 15, and 16 demonstrated a certain selectivity profile at GI50 level from 5.16 to 9.56 towards K-562, CCRF-CEM, HL-60(TB), and RPMI-8226 (Leukemia), HT29 (Colon cancer), and OVCAR-4 (Ovarian cancer) cell lines. Selectivity indexes of azepanoerythrodiol 3 at TGI level ranged from 5.93 (CNS cancer cell lines SF-539, SNB-19 and SNB-75) to 14.89 for HCT-116 (colon cancer) with SI 9.56 at GI50 level for the leukemia cell line K-562. The present study highlighted the importance of A-azepano-ring in the triterpenic core for the development of novel antitumor agents, and a future aim to increase the selectivity profile will thus lie in the area of modifications of azepano-triterpenic acids at their carboxyl group.  相似文献   
4.
孙搏  付淑军  陈桂良  李丽 《金属学报》2021,26(10):1095-1102
药物相互作用改变了剂量效应关系,可能会降低疗效或增加毒性,是临床应用中合并用药治疗时重要的考虑因素。预测具有临床意义的药物相互作用是药物研发过程中获益风险评估的重要环节。本文概述了药物研发过程中药物相互作用研究的目的和意义,体内和体外研究的主要内容;梳理分析了2020年国家药品监督管理局(National Medical Products Administration, NMPA)和美国食品药品监督管理局(Food and Drug Administration, FDA)批准上市的新药药物相互作用研究情况,旨在为我国药物研发过程中药物相互作用研究及其监管审评提供参考。  相似文献   
5.
Reconstruction of spectral information based on multi‐channel image system is a significant problem in color reproduction, detection, and recognition. A spectral radiance reconstruction from trichromatic digital camera responses is researched in this article. The mapping relationship between the trichromatic imaging system response and the incident spectral radiance is analyzed. Then, in order to remove the ill‐posedness of the problem, a regularized constraint solution model of spectral radiance reconstruction matrix is established. And the spectral radiance can be reconstructed by spectral radiance reconstruction matrices and trichromatic imaging system response. Finally, the spectral radiance reconstruction matrix is estimated by the system radiometric calibration experiment. The input radiance is offered by a LCD display. A 3‐factor and 9‐level orthogonal test is designed for the calibration experiment, and a test set of 24 colors is used for precision analysis. The results show that the average relative mean error of our method is 8.69%, it is lower than that of Wiener filtering method by 2.84%. The method can reconstruct spectral radiance information effectively.  相似文献   
6.
Smartphones are being used and relied on by people more than ever before. The open connectivity brings with it great convenience and leads to a variety of risks that cannot be overlooked. Smartphone vendors, security policy designers, and security application providers have put a variety of practical efforts to secure smartphones, and researchers have conducted extensive research on threat sources, security techniques, and user security behaviors. Regrettably, smartphone users do not pay enough attention to mobile security, making many efforts futile. This study identifies this gap between technology affordance and user requirements, and attempts to investigate the asymmetric perceptions toward security features between developers and users, between users and users, as well as between different security features. These asymmetric perceptions include perceptions of quality, perceptions of importance, and perceptions of satisfaction. After scoping the range of smartphone security features, this study conducts an improved Kano-based method and exhaustively analyzes the 245 collected samples using correspondence analysis and importance satisfaction analysis. The 14 security features of the smartphone are divided into four Kano quality types and the perceived quality differences between developers and users are compared. Correspondence analysis is utilized to capture the relationship between the perceived importance of security features across different groups of respondents, and results of importance-satisfaction analysis provide the basis for the developmental path and resource reallocation strategy of security features. This article offers new insights for researchers as well as practitioners of smartphone security.  相似文献   
7.
Cell encapsulation within hydrogel droplets is transforming what is feasible in multiple fields of biomedical science such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in vitro modeling, and cell-based therapies. Recent advances have allowed researchers to miniaturize material encapsulation complexes down to single-cell scales, where each complex, termed a single-cell microgel, contains only one cell surrounded by a hydrogel matrix while remaining <100 μm in size. With this achievement, studies requiring single-cell resolution are now possible, similar to those done using liquid droplet encapsulation. Of particular note, applications involving long-term in vitro cultures, modular bioinks, high-throughput screenings, and formation of 3D cellular microenvironments can be tuned independently to suit the needs of individual cells and experimental goals. In this progress report, an overview of established materials and techniques used to fabricate single-cell microgels, as well as insight into potential alternatives is provided. This focused review is concluded by discussing applications that have already benefited from single-cell microgel technologies, as well as prospective applications on the cusp of achieving important new capabilities.  相似文献   
8.
王海宁  池卓哲 《包装工程》2021,42(12):84-90, 97
目的 为了更科学地研究和检验可穿戴产品的适合性,提出一种适合性检验方法,能够精确保留现实环境中的产品佩戴关系,并能将现实与虚拟的适合性检验研究相结合,得到合理的适合性检验结果.方法 以虚拟现实眼镜的适合性检验为例,通过高精度的三维测量技术将现实环境中的人、产品以及人—产品佩戴关系转化为三维虚拟信息,并以人—产品佩戴三维模型为参考基准对齐人和产品的虚拟模型,得到保留现实佩戴关系的人—产品佩戴模型组,再应用偏差分析法得出人—机佩戴区域的可视化适合性结果和统计数据,结合主观评价方法进一步分析产品的适合性.结论 虚实结合的产品适合性检验方法可在虚拟环境中高精度地保留现实环境中的人—产品佩戴关系,并能得到可视化的适合性检验结果,为检验和指导产品的适合性提供依据.  相似文献   
9.
To benefit from recent advances in modeling and computational algorithms,as well as the availability of new covariance data,sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are needed to quantify the impact of uncertain sources on the design parameters of small prismatic high-temperature gas-cooled reactors(HTGRs).In particular,the contribution of nuclear data to the keff uncertainty is an important part of the uncertainty analysis of small-sized HTGR physical calculations.In this study,a small-sized HTGR designed by China Nuclear Power Engineering Co.,Ltd.was selected for keff uncertainty analysis during full lifetime burnup calculations.Models of the cold zero power(CZP)condition and full lifetime burnup process were constructed using the Reactor Monte Carlo Code RMC for neutron transport calculation,depletion calculation,and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis.For the sensitivity analysis,the Contribution-Linked eigenvalue sensitivity/Uncertainty estimation via Track length importance Characterization(CLUTCH)method was applied to obtain sensitive infor-mation,and the"sandwich"method was used to quantify the keff uncertainty.We also compared the keff uncertainties to other typical reactors.Our results show that 235U is the largest contributor to keff uncertainty for both the CZP and depletion conditions,while the contribution of 239Pu is not very significant because of the design of low discharge burnup.It is worth noting that the radioactive capture reaction of 28Si significantly contributes to the keff uncer-tainty owing to its specific fuel design.However,the keff uncertainty during the full lifetime depletion process was relatively stable,only increasing by 1.12%owing to the low discharge burnup design of small-sized HTGRs.These numerical results are beneficial for neutronics design and core parameters optimization in further uncertainty prop-agation and quantification study for small-sized HTGR.  相似文献   
10.
结合全球倡导的营养导向型农业和功能性食品的内容,首次提出“功能性小麦品种”的概念,将其定义为“含有对人体健康有益的活性成分,可调节人体有益代谢,能给人体健康带来某种益处或满足特定人群的特殊需求,同时可以作为日常食物的口感正常、无毒副作用的小麦品种类型”;结合疫情警示和我国进入后工业时代后,人们需求必将由“吃得饱”、“吃得好”向“吃得健康”转变,因而提出继高产品种、优质品种之后培育“功能性小麦品种”的育种目标。根据多年关于小麦淀粉、蛋白、酯类和其他成分的功能研究结果,介绍新育成的“麦黄酮”、“高色素”、“高抗性淀粉”、“富锌”、“低醇溶蛋白”和“低植酸”等功能性小麦新品种(系)的营养特性和农艺产量状况;根据“健康中国2030”规划等国家战略,进行“功能性品种培育是解决我国功能性食品‘卡脖子’的关键基础,一种功能性品种可以形成一类功能性食品,多种功能性品种可以形成我国功能性面制品产业,推动我国整个食品工业的发展”的前景展望;根据功能性品种及其食品的稳定性和可靠性是产品和市场的“生命线”,从对消费者负责的高度,提出关于“功能性农作物品种审定导向和组建功能性成分检测机构;编制有关功能性品种和食品的国家或行业标准,设立功能性食品和功能性农作物品种的商业标志,保证我国功能性农作物品种及其食品健康发展”等方面的具体建议。  相似文献   
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