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Actions are being developed to address the adverse consequences of engineering works on large European rivers by developing and implementing restoration activities in order to enhance the functionality and biodiversity of fluvial hydrosystems. However, as has frequently been mentioned in the scientific literature, quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the project benefits, if any, and their sustainability are hindered by the difficulty in assessing the responses of aquatic and riparian communities to the methods employed. A case study was conducted on a by‐passed section of the Upper Rhine River (France and Germany) to investigate the effects of instream flow increase and gravel augmentation on selected aquatic and riparian communities (macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, and riparian plants). This paper presents the results of a 6‐year interdisciplinary, before‐after control‐impact design monitoring study. The complexity of the study lies in carrying out a separate assessment of the cumulative effects on a site‐based, project‐specific basis. The results showed that (a) the instream flow increase resulted in greater richness of macrophyte species in the newly created backwaters, (b) the artificial gravel bar favoured the recruitment of pioneer species, including invasive species, although gravel redistribution by floods prevented their development, and (c) gravel augmentation tended to promote the taxonomic richness of macroinvertebrate communities with the appearance of species adapted to the new substrate areas. These findings should help to fill the knowledge gaps in large‐scale restoration and contribute key responses to the most frequently arising issues in this area, especially those concerning the efficiency and sustainability of river restoration projects.  相似文献
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As a consequence of historical damming and channelization, most large rivers are disconnected from their floodplains, which therefore endure severe deficits in fluvial dynamics. Regaining some degree of lateral connectivity can lead to improved geomorphological and biological interactions. Yet, it is necessary to take into account limitations posed by current uses and legislation. This study presents a methodological approach to the selection of a realistic restoration target for a heavily modified large river segment, the free‐flowing Upper Rhine River downstream of Iffezheim dam (France–Germany border), based on the analysis of the existing biogeomorphic deficits, constraints set by human uses, and previous restoration experiences. To achieve the selected restoration target, proposed scenarios include embankment removal, bank lowerings, and side channel widenings with the aim of increasing lateral hydrological connectivity and promoting morphodynamics (bank erosion in lateral channels) that allow for the renewal of floodplain habitats. Results from 2‐D hydraulic simulations allow for a sensitivity analysis, comparing the current situation with the proposed scenarios, through parameters such as shore length of side channels actively connected at both ends to the main channel (eupotamon), and shear stress as a proxy for initiation of gravel erosion. Outcomes indicate that the two proposed restoration scenarios would succeed in reconnecting side channels and in increasing areas prone to substrate erosion, while maintaining flood protection and the heaviest navigation use among European rivers. The presented approach aids in the assessment of potential large river restoration scenarios and, thus, in the discussion of water management strategies.  相似文献
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