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1.
The current trends in energy were described, the main of which is the use of alternative energy sources, especially hydrogen. The most common methods of hydrogen accumulation were proposed: accumulation of compressed gaseous hydrogen in high-pressure tanks; accumulation of liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks; storing hydrogen in a chemically bound state; accumulation of gaseous hydrogen in carriers with a high specific surface area. Based on the combination of advantages and disadvantages, the most promising methods of accumulation were selected: storage of liquid hydrogen and storage of hydrogen in carriers with a high specific surface area. The main requirement for materials for hydrogen storage by these methods was revealed – a high specific surface area. Prospects for the development of waste-free low-emission technologies due to the recycling of secondary raw materials and the development of low-temperature technologies for the synthesis of functional and structural materials were substantiated. The applicability of large-scale ash and slag waste from coal-fired thermal power plants as a raw material for obtaining materials by low-temperature technologies was shown. The traditional ways of using ash and slag waste as a raw material, active additive and filler in the production of cements were described. Modern technologies for the production of innovative materials with a unique set of properties were presented, namely carbon nanotubes, silica aerogel and geopolymer materials. The prospect of using geopolymer matrices as a precursor for the synthesis of a number of materials was described; the most promising type of materials was selected – geopolymer foams, which are mainly used as sorbents for purifying liquids and gases or accumulating target products, as well as heat-insulating materials. The possibility of obtaining products of any shape and size on the basis of geopolymer matrices without high-temperature processing was shown. The special efficiency of the development of the technology of porous granules and powders obtained from a geopolymer precursor using various methods was substantiated. The obtained granules can be used in the following hydrogen storage technologies: direct accumulation of hydrogen in porous granules; creation of insulating layers for liquid hydrogen storage units.  相似文献   
2.
学习不仅仅是自然科学知识的学习,更是社会科学、民族文化、正确人生观和价值观的形成过程,“课程思政”无疑正是实现该目标的捷径,它是当前高等院校思想政治教育的新模式。如何提升学生解决“复杂工程问题”的能力成为高校开展工程教育和“新工科”的难点和重点,而课程思政正是培养学生解决“复杂工程问题”中所需要的非技术因素的重要途径。“自动控制系统工程设计”是自动化专业高年级学生的一门专业课,当前关于“课程思政”的论述是指导思想居多、实施经验以及案例设计较少,针对该问题以“自动控制系统工程设计”为例,详细给出了“课程思政”教学案例的具体实施过程,对同类课程提供参考。  相似文献   
3.
寒区河道凌汛灾害河势“弯道效应”的量化评估十分重要。基于分形理论提出河道横断面-纵剖面-平面多维度河势分形维数计算方法及其物理机制,并探讨黄河内蒙古段不同维度河势演变分形特征及其与凌汛灾害的关联关系。结果表明,黄河内蒙古段不同维度河势均具有多尺度自相似分形特征,且具有多年记忆周期的长程相关性;冰坝(严重性冰塞)发生频次与河道主槽弯曲分形维数呈正相关指数型函数关系,与河相系数、深泓点高程和河段平均底坡分形维数负相关,与水深-面积分形维数正相关,总体表明冰坝灾害更易发生于主槽偏移摆动大、蜿蜒曲折、河湾发育程度高的宽浅型弯曲河道,研究成果可为凌汛期冰塞冰坝灾害易发河段诊断及预测提供重要理论依据。  相似文献   
4.
In the last few decades, global warming, environmental pollution, and an energy shortage of fossil fuel may cause a severe economic crisis and health threats. Storage, conversion, and application of regenerable and dispersive energy would be a promising solution to release this crisis. The development of porous carbon materials from regenerated biomass are competent methods to store energy with high performance and limited environmental damages. In this regard, bio-carbon with abundant surface functional groups and an easily tunable three-dimensional porous structure may be a potential candidate as a sustainable and green carbon material. Up to now, although some literature has screened the biomass source, reaction temperature, and activator dosage during thermochemical synthesis, a comprehensive evaluation and a detailed discussion of the relationship between raw materials, preparation methods, and the structural and chemical properties of carbon materials are still lacking. Hence, in this review, we first assess the recent advancements in carbonization and activation process of biomass with different compositions and the activity performance in various energy storage applications including supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and hydrogen storage, highlighting the mechanisms and open questions in current energy society. After that, the connections between preparation methods and porous carbon properties including specific surface area, pore volume, and surface chemistry are reviewed in detail. Importantly, we discuss the relationship between the pore structure of prepared porous carbon with surface functional groups, and the energy storage performance in various energy storage fields for different biomass sources and thermal conversion methods. Finally, the conclusion and prospective are concluded to give an outlook for the development of biomass carbon materials, and energy storage applications technologies. This review demonstrates significant potentials for energy applications of biomass materials, and it is expected to inspire new discoveries to promote practical applications of biomass materials in more energy storage and conversion fields.  相似文献   
5.
Polymer electrets have revealed great potential application in electromechanical devices because of the low weight, large quasi-piezoelectric sensitivity, and excellent flexibility. For an electret, a permanent and macroscopic electric field exists on the surface, principally led by a macroscopic electrostatic charge on the surface or a net orientation of polar groups inside the object. Here, progress in the development of polymer electrets is reviewed. After a brief retrospect of the research courses and those typical polymer electrets that are classified into fluorine polymer and nonfluorine polymer, we present a survey on the charging methods, including corona, soft X-ray, contact, thermal and monoenergetic particle beams. The latest representative applications (i.e., power harvesting, sensors, field effect transistors, and biomedicine) based on polymer electrets are also summarized. Finally, we complete this review with a discussion on perspectives and challenges in this field.  相似文献   
6.
Mg-based hydride is a promising hydrogen storage material, but its capacity is hindered by the kinetic properties. In this study, Mg–Mg2Ni–LaHx nanocomposite is formed from the H-induced decomposition of Mg98Ni1·67La0.33 alloy. The hydrogen capacity of 7.19 wt % is reached at 325 °C under 3 MPa H2, attributed to the ultrahigh hydrogenation capacity in Stage I. The hydrogen capacity of 5.59 wt % is achieved at 175 °C under 1 MPa H2. The apparent activation energies for hydrogen absorption and desorption are calculated as 57.99 and 107.26 kJ/mol, which are owing to the modified microstructure with LaHx and Mg2Ni nanophases embedding in eutectic, and tubular nanostructure adjacent to eutectic. The LaH2.49 nanophase can catalyze H2 molecules to dissociate and H atoms to permeate due to its stronger affinity with H atoms. The interfaces of these nanophases provide preferential nucleation sites and alleviate the “blocking effect” together with tubular nanostructure by providing H atoms diffusion paths after the impingement of MgH2 colonies. Therefore, the superior hydrogenation properties are achieved because of the rapid absorption process of Stage I. The efficient synthesis of nano-catalysts and corresponding mechanisms for improving hydrogen storage properties have important reference to related researches.  相似文献   
7.
以“创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享”为内核的新发展理念,是对马克思主义发展理念的继承和发扬,极具时代精神,富含问题意识,为高校思想政治教育发展、教育教学改革实践提供了强大的理论支撑。本文以“通信原理”为例,阐述了新发展理念在课程改革中的思路和方法,实现了思想政治教育与专业基础课程有机融合,为深化高校教学改革、创新人才培养模式提供了思路。  相似文献   
8.
边坡位移的时间序列曲线存在复杂的非线性特性,传统的预测模型精度不足以满足预测要求。为此提出了基于变分模态分解的鸟群优化-核极限学习机的预测模型,并用于河北省某水泥厂的边坡位移预测。该方法首先采用VMD把边坡位移序列分解为一系列的有限带宽的子序列,再对各子序列分别采用相空间重构并用核极限学习机预测,采用鸟群算法优化相空间重构的嵌入维度和KELM中惩罚系数和核参数三个数值,以取得最优预测模型。最后将各个子序列预测值叠加,得到边坡位移的最终预测值。结果表明:和KELM、BSA-KELM、EEMD-BSA-KELM模型相比,基于VMD的BSA-KELM预测精度更高,为边坡位移的预测提供一种有效的方法。  相似文献   
9.
以智能反射面(intelligent reflecting surface,IRS)辅助的无线携能通信(simultaneous wireless information and power transfer,SWIPT)系统为背景,研究了该系统中基于能效优先的多天线发送端有源波束成形与IRS无源波束成形联合设计与优化方法。以最大化接收端的最小能效为优化目标,构造在发送端功率、接收端能量阈值、IRS相移等多约束下的非线性优化问题,用交替方向乘子法(alternating direction method of multipliers,ADMM)求解。采用Dinkelbach算法转化目标函数,通过奇异值分解(singular value decomposition,SVD)和半定松弛(semi-definite relaxation,SDR)得到发送端有源波束成形向量。采用SDR得到IRS相移矩阵与反射波束成形向量。结果表明,该系统显著降低了系统能量收集(energy harvesting,EH)接收端的能量阈值。当系统总电路功耗为?15 dBm时,所提方案的用户能效为300 KB/J。当IRS反射阵源数与发送天线数均为最大值时,系统可达最大能效。  相似文献   
10.
Catalyst samples for CH4 decomposition were prepared from red mud (RM) by an acid-leaching neutralization precipitation approach. Water-washing the resultant precipitates multiple times, followed by drying at 105 °C and calcination at 500 °C, resulted in a threshold of residual Na2O, equivalent to 96% Na2O removal. Drying the precipitate at a higher temperature of 200 °C, followed by repeated water washing, provided a deeper Na2O removal of 99% and made the resultant samples more active for the targeted reaction. Subsequently, four catalyst samples with a simulated red mud composition and NaOH contents from 0 to 0.3 wt% were prepared and the catalytic test results revealed that the Na2O remaining in the RM-derived catalysts did not only inhibit their activation in CH4 but also lower their maximal activities for CH4 decomposition. Finally, two catalysts with the same simulated red mud composition and their Na impregnated respectively on Fe2O3 and a mixture support of Al2O3-SiO2-TiO2 were prepared and tested to explore the effect of Na distribution on the activation behavior of RM-derived catalysts for CH4 decomposition. The activity testing results showed that it was the Na residual dispersed on iron oxides in the RM-derived samples to significantly inhibit the activation of CH4 decomposition.  相似文献   
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