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1.
With the rapid increase in both centralized video archives and distributed WWW video resources, content-based video retrieval is gaining its importance. To support such applications efficiently, content-based video indexing must be addressed. Typically, each video is represented by a sequence of frames. Due to the high dimensionality of frame representation and the large number of frames, video indexing introduces an additional degree of complexity. In this paper, we address the problem of content-based video indexing and propose an efficient solution, called the ordered VA-file (OVA-file) based on the VA-file. OVA-file is a hierarchical structure and has two novel features: 1) partitioning the whole file into slices such that only a small number of slices are accessed and checked during k nearest neighbor (kNN) search and 2) efficient handling of insertions of new vectors into the OVA-file, such that the average distance between the new vectors and those approximations near that position is minimized. To facilitate a search, we present an efficient approximate kNN algorithm named ordered VA-LOW (OVA-LOW) based on the proposed OVA-file. OVA-LOW first chooses possible OVA-slices by ranking the distances between their corresponding centers and the query vector, and then visits all approximations in the selected OVA-slices to work out approximate kNN. The number of possible OVA-slices is controlled by a user-defined parameter delta. By adjusting delta, OVA-LOW provides a trade-off between the query cost and the result quality. Query by video clip consisting of multiple frames is also discussed. Extensive experimental studies using real video data sets were conducted and the results showed that our methods can yield a significant speed-up over an existing VA-file-based method and (distance with high query result quality. Furthermore, by incorporating temporal correlation of video content, our methods achieved much more efficient performance  相似文献
2.
Batch Nearest Neighbor Search for Video Retrieval   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
To retrieve similar videos to a query clip from a large database, each video is often represented by a sequence of high- dimensional feature vectors. Typically, given a query video containing m feature vectors, an independent nearest neighbor (NN) search for each feature vector is often first performed. After completing all the NN searches, an overall similarity is then computed, i.e., a single content-based video retrieval usually involves m individual NN searches. Since normally nearby feature vectors in a video are similar, a large number of expensive random disk accesses are expected to repeatedly occur, which crucially affects the overall query performance. Batch nearest neighbor (BNN) search is stated as a batch operation that performs a number of individual NN searches. This paper presents a novel approach towards efficient high-dimensional BNN search called dynamic query ordering (DQO) for advanced optimizations of both I/O and CPU costs. Observing the overlapped candidates (or search space) of a pervious query may help to further reduce the candidate sets of subsequent queries, DQO aims at progressively finding a query order such that the common candidates among queries are fully utilized to maximally reduce the total number of candidates. Modelling the candidate set relationship of queries by a candidate overlapping graph (COG), DQO iteratively selects the next query to be executed based on its estimated pruning power to the rest of queries with the dynamically updated COG. Extensive experiments are conducted on real video datasets and show the significance of our BNN query processing strategy.  相似文献
3.
Mining multi-tag association for image tagging   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Automatic media tagging plays a critical role in modern tag-based media retrieval systems. Existing tagging schemes mostly perform tag assignment based on community contributed media resources, where the tags are provided by users interactively. However, such social resources usually contain dirty and incomplete tags, which severely limit the performance of these tagging methods. In this paper, we propose a novel automatic image tagging method aiming to automatically discover more complete tags associated with information importance for test images. Given an image dataset, all the near-duplicate clusters are discovered. For each near-duplicate cluster, all the tags occurring in the cluster form the cluster’s “document”. Given a test image, we firstly initialize the candidate tag set from its near-duplicate cluster’s document. The candidate tag set is then expanded by considering the implicit multi-tag associations mined from all the clusters’ documents, where each cluster’s document is regarded as a transaction. To further reduce noisy tags, a visual relevance score is also computed for each candidate tag to the test image based on a new tag model. Tags with very low scores can be removed from the final tag set. Extensive experiments conducted on a real-world web image dataset—NUS-WIDE, demonstrate the promising effectiveness of our approach.  相似文献
4.
With the growing demand for visual information of rich content, effective and efficient manipulations of large video databases are increasingly desired. Many investigations have been made on content-based video retrieval. However, despite the importance, video subsequence identification, which is to find the similar content to a short query clip from a long video sequence, has not been well addressed. This paper presents a graph transformation and matching approach to this problem, with extension to identify the occurrence of potentially different ordering or length due to content editing. With a novel batch query algorithm to retrieve similar frames, the mapping relationship between the query and database video is first represented by a bipartite graph. The densely matched parts along the long sequence are then extracted, followed by a filter-and-refine search strategy to prune some irrelevant subsequences. During the filtering stage, maximum size matching is deployed for each subgraph constructed by the query and candidate subsequence to obtain a smaller set of candidates. During the refinement stage, sub-maximum similarity matching is devised to identify the subsequence with the highest aggregate score from all candidates, according to a robust video similarity model that incorporates visual content, temporal order, and frame alignment information. The performance studies conducted on a long video recording of 50 hours validate that our approach is promising in terms of both search accuracy and speed.  相似文献
5.
Multiresolution Triangular Mesh (MTM) models are widely used to improve the performance of large terrain visualization by replacing the original model with a simplified one. MTM models, which consist of both original and simplified data, are commonly stored in spatial database systems due to their size. The relatively slow access speed of disks makes data retrieval the bottleneck of such terrain visualization systems. Existing spatial access methods proposed to address this problem rely on main-memory MTM models, which leads to significant overhead during query processing. In this paper, we approach the problem from a new perspective and propose a novel MTM called direct mesh that is designed specifically for secondary storage. It supports available indexing methods natively and requires no modification to MTM structure. Experiment results, which are based on two real-world data sets, show an average performance improvement of 5-10 times over the existing methods.  相似文献
6.
In this paper, we present ICICLE (Image ChainNet and Incremental Clustering Engine), a prototype system that we have developed to efficiently and effectively retrieve WWW images based on image semantics. ICICLE has two distinguishing features. First, it employs a novel image representation model called Weight ChainNet to capture the semantics of the image content. A new formula, called list space model, for computing semantic similarities is also introduced. Second, to speed up retrieval, ICICLE employs an incremental clustering mechanism, ICC (Incremental Clustering on ChainNet), to cluster images with similar semantics into the same partition. Each cluster has a summary representative and all clusters' representatives are further summarized into a balanced and full binary tree structure. We conducted an extensive performance study to evaluate ICICLE. Compared with some recently proposed methods, our results show that ICICLE provides better recall and precision. Our clustering technique ICC facilitates speedy retrieval of images without sacrificing recall and precision significantly.  相似文献
7.
In this paper, we present a novel indexing technique called Multi-scale Similarity Indexing (MSI) to index image's multi-features into a single one-dimensional structure. Both for text and visual feature spaces, the similarity between a point and a local partition's center in individual space is used as the indexing key, where similarity values in different features are distinguished by different scale. Then a single indexing tree can be built on these keys. Based on the property that relevant images have similar similarity values from the center of the same local partition in any feature space, certain number of irrelevant images can be fast pruned based on the triangle inequity on indexing keys. To remove the “dimensionality curse” existing in high dimensional structure, we propose a new technique called Local Bit Stream (LBS). LBS transforms image's text and visual feature representations into simple, uniform and effective bit stream (BS) representations based on local partition's center. Such BS representations are small in size and fast for comparison since only bit operation are involved. By comparing common bits existing in two BSs, most of irrelevant images can be immediately filtered. To effectively integrate multi-features, we also investigated the following evidence combination techniques—Certainty Factor, Dempster Shafer Theory, Compound Probability, and Linear Combination. Our extensive experiment showed that single one-dimensional index on multi-features improves multi-indices on multi-features greatly. Our LBS method outperforms sequential scan on high dimensional space by an order of magnitude. And Certainty Factor and Dempster Shafer Theory perform best in combining multiple similarities from corresponding multiple features.  相似文献
8.
The performance optimization of query processing in spatial networks focuses on minimizing network data accesses and the cost of network distance calculations. This paper proposes algorithms for network k-NN queries, range queries, closest-pair queries and multi-source skyline queries based on a novel processing framework, namely, incremental lower bound constraint. By giving high processing priority to the query associated data points and utilizing the incremental nature of the lower bound, the performance of our algorithms is better optimized in contrast to the corresponding algorithms based on known framework incremental Euclidean restriction and incremental network expansion. More importantly, the proposed algorithms are proven to be instance optimal among classes of algorithms. Through experiments on real road network datasets, the superiority of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated.  相似文献
9.
In multimedia retrieval, a query is typically interactively refined towards the “optimal” answers by exploiting user feedback. However, in existing work, in each iteration, the refined query is re-evaluated. This is not only inefficient but fails to exploit the answers that may be common between iterations. Furthermore, it may also take too many iterations to get the “optimal” answers. In this paper, we introduce a new approach called OptRFS (optimizing relevance feedback search by query prediction) for iterative relevance feedback search. OptRFS aims to take users to view the “optimal” results as fast as possible. It optimizes relevance feedback search by both shortening the searching time during each iteration and reducing the number of iterations. OptRFS predicts the potential candidates for the next iteration and maintains this small set for efficient sequential scan. By doing so, repeated candidate accesses (i.e., random accesses) can be saved, hence reducing the searching time for the next iteration. In addition, efficient scan on the overlap before the next search starts also tightens the search space with smaller pruning radius. As a step forward, OptRFS also predicts the “optimal” query, which corresponds to “optimal” answers, based on the early executed iterations’ queries. By doing so, some intermediate iterations can be saved, hence reducing the total number of iterations. By taking the correlations among the early executed iterations into consideration, OptRFS investigates linear regression, exponential smoothing and linear exponential smoothing to predict the next refined query so as to decide the overlap of candidates between two consecutive iterations. Considering the special features of relevance feedback, OptRFS further introduces adaptive linear exponential smoothing to self-adjust the parameters for more accurate prediction. We implemented OptRFS and our experimental study on real life data sets show that it can reduce the total cost of relevance feedback search significantly. Some interesting features of relevance feedback search are also discovered and discussed.  相似文献
10.
Trajectory data gathered by mobile positioning techniques and location-aware devices contain plenty of sensitive spatial-temporal and semantic information, and can support many applications through data analysing and mining. However, attribute-linkage and re-identification attacks on such data may cause privacy leakage, and lead to unexpected serious consequences. Existing privacy preserving techniques for trajectory data often ignore the different privacy requirements of different moving objects or largely scarify the availability of trajectory data. In view of these issues, we propose an effective personalized trajectory privacy preserving method which can strike a good balance between user-defined privacy requirement and data availability in off-line trajectory publishing scenario. The main idea is to firstly label semantic attributes of all sampling points on the trajectory and build a corresponding taxonomy tree, next extract sensitive stop points, then for different types of sensitive stop points, adopt different strategies to select the appropriate points of user interests to replace while considering user speed and avoiding reverse mutation, and finally publish the reconstructed trajectory. Besides, to make our method more realistic we further consider possible obstacles appeared in the user space environment. In the experiments, average identification possibility, trajectory semantic consistency and trajectory shape similarity are taken as evaluation criteria, and the performance of our method is comprehensively evaluated. The results show that our method can improve the user trajectory availability as much as possible, while effectively achieving the different trajectory privacy requirements.  相似文献
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